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Military action is underway in Ukraine. If you’re in Ukraine, shelter in place until it’s safe to depart.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine is ongoing. The security situation continues to be volatile and is deteriorating rapidly. Heavy fighting, including bombardments, explosions and missile launches, is ongoing throughout Ukraine, including in major cities. Infrastructure and military facilities have been struck by rocket attacks. There have been many civilian casualties. Foreigners have been killed and may be targeted, including in areas not directly affected by fighting. Do not travel to Ukraine, there is a real risk to life. If you’re in Ukraine, shelter in place until you judge it’s safe to depart. Continue to monitor advice on Smartraveller and reputable local and international media. Where it is safe to do so, you should leave Ukraine.
Use your judgement to decide the best time and safest means of exit. Expect some congestion on routes, at checkpoints and lengthy queues. Roads may be crowded, exposed to military action or have damage, including to bridges and facilities. Make sure you have an adequate supply of food, water, medication and fuel.
The Australian Government will not be able to evacuate you from Ukraine.
Be aware that some borders may close without notice. Information may change and will be updated as details become available. You should also read the travel advice of the destination you’re travelling to - entry requirements may differ when entering by road, rail or air. Before leaving Ukraine, verify if the local authorities of your destination have implemented any restrictions or requirements related to this situation.
Expect some congestion on routes, at checkpoints and lengthy queues. Make sure you have an adequate supply of food, water, medication and fuel. Use your judgement to decide the best time and safest means of exit. Roads may be crowded, exposed to military action or have damage, including to bridges and facilities.
In most cases, Australians departing Ukraine must present a valid Australian passport.
Read our advice about Ukraine border regions.
+61 2 6261 3305 from overseas
1300 555 135 from within Australia
Health advice is continually changing as we learn more about COVID-19 and new variants may be discovered. Rules and restrictions to prevent outbreaks can change quickly. It’s important to regularly check the rules in the destinations you’re travelling to and transiting through, as well as the requirements at the Australian border. These may differ between state and territory jurisdictions.
Full travel advice: Safety
Full travel advice: Health
Full travel advice: Local laws
Full travel advice: Travel
Full travel advice: Local contacts
Ottawa and other Canadian cities experienced significant demonstrations in February against pandemic restrictions. Canadian authorities continue to monitor for further disruptions.
Avoid areas where protests occur due to the ongoing potential for unrest and violence:
The crime rate in Canada is similar to Australia.
Crime is more likely in larger cities.
Petty crime like pickpocketing can happen at tourist spots and hotels and on public transport.
Theft from unattended cars is common in larger cities.
As in Australia, credit card scams and fraud can happen.
To protect yourself from petty crime:
Terrorism is a threat worldwide.
Canada's Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre assesses the terrorism threat in Canada to be Medium, meaning that a violent act of terrorism could occur.
The principal terrorist threat in Canada is posed by individuals or groups inspired by violent and extremist ideologies - whether political, religious or ideological. In recent years, Canada has seen a small number of lone actor violent incidents reportedly involving extremist ideologies.
Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners, and places of worship.
To reduce your risk of being involved in a terrorist incident:
If there's an attack, leave the affected area as soon as it's safe to do so. Avoid the affected area in case of secondary attacks.
Bears and other dangerous wildlife live in forested areas.
To protect yourself if you plan to travel through these areas:
Winter sports can be dangerous, even fatal. Injuries are common.
Some mountainous areas of Alberta and British Columbia experience avalanches. It's unsafe to ski, snowboard and ride skidoos (snow mobiles) on closed trails.
If you plan to do a winter sport or activity:
To protect yourself in case of a natural disaster:
Temperatures in summer (June to August) can reach more than 30°C. Humidity can make the temperature feel 10 to 15°C higher. These conditions can generate severe storms and tornadoes, especially across the provinces of:
Tornadoes occur between April and September in many areas, including:
Temperatures in winter (December to February) of -20 to -30°C, with a wind-chill factor 10 to 15°C lower, are common in some areas. Heavy snowfalls, rain, ice and severe cold create dangerous outdoor conditions.
Hurricanes occur in the Atlantic provinces from June to November. The direction and strength of hurricanes can change suddenly.
If there's a hurricane or severe storm:
Severe weather may also affect access to ports.
To protect yourself if a hurricane is approaching:
Forest fires are common, particularly in warmer months from May to August.
To stay safe in fire season:
British Columbia is in an earthquake zone. Earthquakes have also happened in Quebec and Ontario.
Destructive tsunamis are rare but could happen if there's an earthquake in the Pacific Ocean.
If you're near the coast, move to the nearest high ground or as far inland as you can if you:
Don't wait for official warnings.
Get comprehensive travel insurance before you leave.
Your policy needs to cover all overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation. The Australian Government won't pay for these costs.
If you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. This applies to everyone, no matter how healthy and fit you are.
If you're not insured, you may have to pay many 1000s of dollars up-front for medical care.
Consider your physical and mental health before you travel, especially if you have an existing medical condition. Consider whether you may be in a vulnerable category for COVID-19.
See your doctor or travel clinic to:
Do this at least 8 weeks before you leave.
Not all medication available over the counter or by prescription in Australia is available in other countries. Some may even be considered illegal or a controlled substance, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor.
If you plan to bring medication, check if it's legal in Canada. Take enough legal medication for your trip.
Contact Health Canada for rules that may apply to medications you wish to take or that may be detectable in your body.
Carry a copy of your prescription or a letter from your doctor stating:
COVID-19 remains a risk in Canada.
For information on Canada's COVID−19 vaccination program, refer to the Government of Canada's website. You should consult your local health professional for advice on vaccine options, including assistance that may be available locally. The Australian Government cannot provide advice on the safety, quality and efficacy of vaccines that have been approved for use outside of Australia's regulatory process.
Health risks in Canada are similar to those in Australia.
The standard of health facilities in Canada is similar to Australia.
You might not be able to access public health care unless you're a resident of a Canadian province. There's no reciprocal health care agreement between Australia and Canada.
Walk-in clinics are found in major cities. Many doctors won't take new patients.
Expect to pay up-front for medical services.
You're subject to all local laws and penalties, including those that may appear harsh by Australian standards. Research local laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
If you're arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
Check the local legal drinking age before buying or drinking alcohol. The legal age varies across the country.
The recreational use of marijuana (cannabis) is legal in Canada, subject to local restrictions.
Make sure you know the local cannabis laws about:
It's illegal to transport marijuana across Canada's international borders.
If you break the law, you can receive criminal penalties, including jail time.
Seek legal advice before entering into a surrogacy arrangement.
If you're arrested in Canada, you have the right to ask for access to the nearest Australian embassy or consulate.
Some Australian criminal laws still apply when you're overseas. If you break these laws, you may face prosecution in Australia.
Canada recognises dual nationality.
If you're a Canadian dual national, you must:
Dual nationals aren't eligible for an electronic travel authorisation (eTA).
Even if you're a dual national, you may not get free health care in Canada. See Health
Every country or territory decides who can enter or leave through its borders. For specific information about the evidence you'll need to enter a foreign destination, including COVID-19 vaccinations and tests, check with the nearest embassy, consulate or immigration department of the destination you're entering.
Australian passport holders must apply for an electronic travel authorisation (eTA) before travelling to Canada by air.
If you arrive by car, bus, train, or boat you don’t need an ETA or a visitor visa, but you do need to bring the right travel documents.
If you overstay your visa, you may be detained or arrested.
If you have a criminal record, including a drink-driving conviction, you may not be allowed into Canada. Check Government of Canada for details.
Entry and exit conditions can change. Contact a Canadian embassy or consulate for details about visas, currency, customs and quarantine rules.
Your child should carry a consent letter from non-travelling parents or guardians if they're travelling:
CBSA may question the child or accompanying adult about their status.
Canada has eased border measures as part of its transition to the pandemic response. Pre-entry COVID-19 tests are no longer required for fully vaccinated travellers entering Canada by land, air or water.
Regardless of where you're arriving from, you may be selected for mandatory random testing on arrival in Canada, even if you qualify as fully vaccinated. You're not required to quarantine while awaiting test results. Pre-entry testing requirements aren't changing for travellers who don't qualify as being fully vaccinated. Unless otherwise exempt, all travellers 5 years of age and older, who don't qualify as being fully vaccinated, must continue to provide an accepted pre-entry COVID-19 test result.
Be prepared to quarantine for 14 days, in case you're symptomatic or don’t meet the requirements for the fully vaccinated traveller exemption.
Additional requirements before entering Canada by air
All travellers whether arriving by land or air are required to submit their travel and contact information, including a suitable quarantine plan, electronically via ArriveCAN before crossing the border or boarding a flight.
Additional requirements before entering Canada by land or sea
Cruise ships return to Canadian waters in April with specific disembarking procedures. Cruise lines must adhere to a strict health framework that includes pre-boarding testing, and additional testing and report requirements during the voyage. Cruise ship travellers, including crew, must be fully vaccinated against COVID-19. There are very limited exceptions.
If you're disembarking a cruise ship in Canada you no longer need to take a COVID-19 molecular test before disembarking, but you must continue to monitor for signs and symptoms of COVID-19 for 14 days after arrival. For more information visit the Government of Canada website.
All travellers, whether arriving by land or sea will be required to submit their travel and contact information, including a suitable quarantine plan, electronically via ArriveCAN before crossing the border or boarding a vessel.
Requirements after entering Canada
Travellers who do not qualify for quarantine exemption, whether travel is by air, land or sea into Canada, must provide information via ArriveCAN or call 1-833-641-0343 to confirm that you've arrived at the address you provided for your quarantine or isolation location within 48 hours of your entry; and complete daily COVID-19 symptom self-assessments during your quarantine period.
Some provinces and territories in Canada still require some inter-provincial travellers to quarantine. The rules around entry can vary depending on your vaccination status and/or where you are travelling from. You must wear a face mask or covering while travelling to your final destination, at Canadian airports, including screening checkpoints and where physical distancing requirements aren't possible, or if you're instructed to wear one by an airline or a public health official. If you don't have a face mask, you won't be allowed to fly to or from Canada.
In many situations, provincial or territorial public health authorities have made it mandatory to wear a non-medical mask (or face covering) in public areas. In some jurisdictions, the use of masks in many indoor public spaces and on public transit is now mandatory. Individual provincial and territorial authorities have various other public health measures in place to stop the spread of COVID-19. Check with the provincial public health authority on the requirements for your location.
All airlines and intercity trains in Canada will check your health before you board. This includes asking you health questions and looking for visible signs of illness. Please refer to each of the provincial or municipal governments websites for more information:
If you're travelling within Canada, check the travel restrictions for each province due to COVID-19. Some provinces remain open, while others are closed to visitors or have restrictions on entry.
Some Canadian provinces and territories have commenced implementing proof of full vaccination, supported with photo ID, to access certain public settings and facilities including restaurants, bars, sports facilities, meeting and events spaces, theatres, and cinemas. You should check provincial and territory COVID-19 websites for full details.
The Canadian Government has announced that to depart from Canadian airports or travel on VIA Rail and Rocky Mountaineer trains, all travellers 12 years and older will need to qualify as a fully vaccinated traveller in order to board. This also applies to travellers on cruise ships.
Travel to Australia
Direct flights between Canada and Australia are currently suspended.
You may be able to fly to Australia via the US, Qatar or other hubs. Contact your nearest travel agent for the latest flight option to Australia. Ensure you meet third country transit requirements before you depart Canada.
Get to the airport early in case of any delays.
Travel via Canada
You may be permitted to transit Canada to reach another country. However, the Canadian airport you travel through must have transit facilities to permit you to connect to your next flight without having to clear customs or immigration to enter Canada.
You cannot transit through Canada by land for non-essential reasons.
Travel via the United States
You may be able to return to Australia with a flight itinerary that transits through the United States. This may change at short notice as the US and Canadian Governments introduce new COVID-19 border control measures.
Contact the US Pre-clearance Office at the Canadian airport you're departing from before you go to confirm that you'll be permitted to board your flight in Canada and transit through the United States.
If you're travelling through the US, you must meet US entry and transit requirements. Check with an embassy or consulate of the United States.
Some countries won't let you enter unless your passport is valid for 6 months after you plan to leave that country. This can apply even if you're just transiting or stopping over.
Some foreign governments and airlines apply the rule inconsistently. Travellers can receive conflicting advice from different sources.
You can end up stranded if your passport is not valid for more than 6 months.
The Australian Government does not set these rules. Check your passport's expiry date before you travel. If you're not sure it'll be valid for long enough, consider getting a new passport.
Your passport is a valuable document. It's attractive to people who may try to use your identity to commit crimes.
Some people may try to trick you into giving them your passport. Always keep it in a safe place.
If your passport is lost or stolen, tell the Australian Government as soon as possible:
The local currency is the Canadian Dollar (CAD).
You can change Australian dollars at commercial banks and exchange bureaus.
Declare all amounts over $C10,000. This covers all forms of currency, not only cash.
Credit and debit cards are widely accepted.
To drive in Canada, you'll need both:
Get an IDP before you leave Australia.
You can drive for up to 1 year with an IDP and your Australian licence. After that, you'll need a local driver's licence.
Heavy snowfalls, freezing rain and icy conditions make driving dangerous in winter. Car accidents happen more frequently in these conditions.
If you plan to drive in Canada:
Traffic laws can differ between provinces, but across Canada:
Your travel insurance policy may not cover you when riding a motorbike, quad bike or similar vehicle.
Always wear a helmet. Make sure your passenger does too.
Taxis are a safe mode of transport.
Ride sharing options are widely available.
Use the same safety precautions you would in Australia.
The Canadian Government has announced that as of 30 October all passengers 12 years and older will need to qualify as a fully vaccinated traveller in order to board cruise ships when the cruise season commences in 2022.
Many international cruise liners visit Canada.
As a response to COVID-19, the Government of Canada has announced the implementation of new measures pertaining to cruise ships in Canadian waters. Cruise ships with overnight accommodations allowed to carry more than 100 persons are prohibited from operating in Canadian waters until 28 February 2022.
All other passenger vessels must follow provincial, territorial, local and regional health authority requirements for timelines and processes.
Passenger vessels with the capacity to carry more than 12 persons continue to be prohibited from entering Arctic coastal waters (including Nunatsiavut, Nunavik and the Labrador Coast) until 28 February 2022.
The Canadian Government has announced that as of 30 October 2021 to depart from Canadian airports, all travellers 12 years and older will need to qualify as a fully vaccinated traveller in order to board.
DFAT doesn't provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths.
Check Canada's air safety profile with the Aviation Safety Network.
The Arctic is vast and remote.
Access to search and rescue, evacuation and medical facilities may be limited. It can take several days for emergency help to arrive, especially in bad weather.
For your safety, before you book travel by ship:
Depending on what you need, contact your:
Always get a police report when you report a crime.
Your insurer should have a 24-hour emergency number.
Contact your provider with any complaints about tourist services or products.
Read the Consular Services Charter for what the Australian Government can and can't do to help you overseas.
For consular help, contact the nearest Australian embassy or consulate.
Contact the Australian High Commission in Ottawa if you're in:
Australian High Commission, Ottawa
Suite 1301, 50 O'Connor Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6L2 CANADA
Phone: +1 613 236 0841
Fax: +1 613 786 7621
Facebook: Australia in Canada
Contact the Australian Consulate-General in Toronto if you're in the Greater Toronto Area (the south-western corner of Ontario below Kingston).
Australian Consulate General, Toronto
Suite 1100, South Tower
175 Bloor Street East
Toronto, Ontario M4W 3R8 CANADA
Phone: +1 416 323 4280
Fax: +1 416 323 4295
Contact the Australian Consulate, Vancouver if you're in:
Australian Consulate, Vancouver
Suite 2050, 1075 West Georgia Street
Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 3C9 CANADA
Phone: +1 604 694 6160
Fax: +1 604 684 1856
If you need other consular help:
In a consular emergency, if you can't contact an embassy, call the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on:
Be the first to know official government advice when travelling.