- We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Thailand due to the possibility of civil unrest and the threat of terrorist attack, including in Bangkok and Phuket. The security situation remains volatile. You should pay close attention to your personal security at all times and where possible monitor the local media, including social media, for information about possible new safety or security risks.
- On 17 August 2015, a bomb attack at the Erawan shrine at Chidlom in central Bangkok killed about 20 people and injured over 120. On 18 August, an explosive device was detonated in the water below Taksin Bridge, close to the main tourist ferry terminal in Bangkok. No injuries were reported. Thai authorities are investigating both incidents.
- Travellers may notice an increased security presence in the capital and other major centres in coming days. There may also be enhanced security screening measures in place at major airports. Australians should remain vigilant in public places, monitor the media for the latest information and follow the instructions of local authorities. As always, travellers are encouraged to register your travel and contact details to help us contact you or your family in the event of an emergency.
- Thailand’s National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), which took control of the country in a coup on 22 May 2014, retains wide powers, including to impose measures to respond to threats to peace, order and the economy. Nation-wide martial law was lifted on 1 April 2015, but martial law remains in place in 179 districts in 31 provinces, mostly in border regions.
- Australians should stay well clear of any demonstrations, political events, rallies, processions and large-scale public gatherings as they may turn violent. For further information on possible disruptions. See Safety and security.
- Screening measures are in place at major airports for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Australians arriving from affected countries (Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran Jordan and South Korea) should be aware that they may be subjected to further testing and quarantine if screening tests are positive. See our MERS-CoV travel bulletin.
- Be aware of the risks of hiring jet skis and motorcycles. Australian travellers continue to report harassment and threats of violence by jet ski operators on beaches across Thailand, and particularly in Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui and Koh Phangan. You may be detained and arrested by police following jet ski and motorcycle accidents until compensation, often in thousands of dollars, can be negotiated between parties. Check your insurance cover if you intend to ride a motorcycle in Thailand when you are not licensed to ride one in Australia.
- Tourists may be exposed to scams and more serious criminal activity in Thailand. Be aware that food and drink spiking occurs in Thailand, including around popular backpacker destinations such as Khao San Road in Bangkok the night-time entertainment zones in Bangkok, Pattaya and Phuket, and during the Full Moon Party on Koh Phangan.
- Travellers planning to attend Full Moon parties at Koh Phangan or other locations should carefully consider personal safety issues and take appropriate precautions. See our Partying Overseas page for advice on the risks you may face when attending Full Moon parties and tips on how to avoid becoming a victim.
- Penalties for drug offences are severe and include the death penalty. The possession of even small quantities of "soft drugs" for recreational purposes can result in lengthy jail sentences.
- On 30 July 2015, Thai legislation banning commercial surrogacy came into effect. Australians are advised not to visit Thailand for the purpose of engaging in commercial surrogacy arrangements. See Laws.
- We strongly advise you not to travel at this time to the southern provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla or overland to and from the Malaysian border through these provinces due to high levels of ongoing violence in these areas, including terrorist attacks and bombings that result in deaths and injuries on an almost daily basis.
- Australians visiting Thailand on business should see our Advice to Australian business travellers.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
- organise comprehensive travel insurance and check what circumstances and activities are not covered by your policy. Remember that if you cannot afford travel insurance you cannot afford to travel to Thailand.
- register your travel and contact details, so we can contact you in an emergency
- subscribe to this travel advice to receive free email updates each time it’s reissued.
- follow us on Facebook and Twitter.
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Thailand for the most up-to-date information.
Australian tourists travelling to Thailand through one of the international airports on an Australian passport may currently enter Thailand for up to 30 days without obtaining a visa in advance. This is referred to as a “visa exemption”. Australian tourists travelling overland into Thailand through a border crossing may enter Thailand for up to 15 days without obtaining a visa in advance. A visa is required for longer stays or for travellers intending to work or to travel for purposes other than tourism in Thailand.
In June 2015, Thai authorities confirmed a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in a visitor who travelled to Thailand from the Middle East. The visitor has been declared virus free. Screening measures are in place at major airports. Australians arriving from affected countries (Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran Jordan and South Korea) should be aware that they may be subjected to further testing and quarantine if screening tests are positive. See our Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) travel bulletin.
Travellers should be aware of the local regulations and procedures for importing prescription medication. See Laws.
Thai authorities recommend all travellers to have at least six months’ validity remaining on their passports. You may be refused entry to Thailand, or may not be permitted to board your Thailand-bound flight, if your passport has less than six months’ validity.
The Australian Embassy cannot help you to get entry permits or visas, visa extensions or work permits for Thailand or other countries. Make sure you obtain visas, entry permits and extensions of stay from Thai immigration authorities or a Thai Embassy or Consulate.
Avoid individuals and companies advertising visa extension services, as they may stamp passports with fake or illegally obtained exit and entry stamps. Australians with illegal stamps in their passports can be arrested and jailed for up to 10 years. Thai authorities will vigorously prosecute offenders.
Overstaying your visa in Thailand is considered a very serious offence and may result in arrest and prolonged detention. Travellers who overstay entry permits may not be allowed to leave Thailand until a fine is paid. The fine is currently 500 baht per day, up to a maximum of 20,000 baht. If you cannot afford to pay the overstay fine you may be arrested, taken to court, charged with a visa offence, and required to serve a lengthy prison sentence in lieu of the fine. Travellers who have overstayed their visas may be imprisoned, deported and placed on an immigration blacklist to prevent them from returning to Thailand.
It is illegal to work without a work permit, including for volunteering activities. In the past, some employers (particularly schools, fitness centres, securities telemarketers, currency traders, entertainment venues, and other businesses) have not fulfilled promises to arrange work permits and their employees have been arrested, jailed and deported from Thailand.
Safety and security
Civil unrest/political tension
We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Thailand due to the possibility of civil unrest.
Military authorities retain wide powers: On 20 May 2014, the Thai military declared the imposition of nationwide martial law. On 22 May 2014, the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) announced that it had taken control of the country in a military coup. Nationwide martial law was lifted on 1 April 2015, though martial law remains in place in 179 districts in 31 provinces, mostly in border regions. You should be aware that military authorities retain wide powers, including to impose measures to respond to threats to peace, order and the economy.
Military authorities may restrict public assembly, restrict public expression and impose other security measures.
Avoid all demonstrations and political events: The security situation remains volatile. Since the military coup there have been a number of anti-coup demonstrations in Bangkok and other parts of Thailand, including in areas frequented by tourists. The military has arrested some participants for failing to comply with orders to cease protest activity. These confrontations are potentially volatile. Australians should stay well clear of any demonstrations, political events, rallies, processions and large-scale public gatherings, as they may turn violent.
The military may restrict access to some areas to prevent demonstrators from gathering, including around major shopping and hotel districts in central Bangkok. In the past this has led to the closure of some nearby public transport infrastructure and major shopping malls.
A number of small explosions have occurred in public places since February 2015. On 7 March 2015, a small explosion occurred outside the Bangkok Criminal Court in Chatuchak District. On 1 February 2015, two small explosions occurred outside a Bangkok shopping mall. Investigations are ongoing. Further such incidents are possible.
During anti-government protests in 2014, firearms and hand-grenades were used in attacks against protesters, often at night-time but also during the day in busy public areas around protest sites in central Bangkok and when protesters have been moving around the city. There were also attacks on protestors and other violent incidents in other provinces across Thailand. In the past, authorities have used teargas, water cannons and rubber bullets to control protests. In wide-spread protests that occurred from November 2013 until the coup in May 2014, incidents associated with the protests resulted in over 25 deaths and hundreds of injuries. Further indiscriminate attacks are possible.
Thai-Cambodia border: Australians intending to visit temples along the Thai-Cambodia border should be aware of the ongoing border dispute that has resulted in fighting as recently as April 2012. In recent years conflict has occurred in the area surrounding the Preah Vihear temple (known as Khao Pra Viharn temple in Thailand) located in the border region between Sisaket Province in Thailand and Preah Vihear Province in Cambodia. Conflict has also occurred in the area surrounding the Ta Kwai (known as Ta Krabei temple in Cambodia) and Ta Muen Thom (known as Ta Moan temple in Cambodia) temples along the Thai-Cambodia border in Surin province (most recently in early 2011). Fatalities were reported. Tourist attractions and border crossing points may be closed with little or no notice. There is a risk in border areas from landmines and unexploded military ordnance.
Thai-Burma border: There have been instances of fighting and banditry along some sections of the Thai-Burma border. This includes fighting between the Burmese military and armed ethnic opposition groups as well as clashes between Thai security forces and armed criminal groups, such as drug traffickers. Armed clashes between the Burmese military and armed opposition groups inside Burma may cause border closures and an influx of displaced civilians. In the event of unrest in Burma, you should monitor media reports and follow the instructions of Thai officials.
Travellers who have attempted illegal border crossings have been detained and deported from Thailand. You should also be aware that bandits may target foreigners travelling through national parks located near border regions.
We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Thailand due to the threat of terrorist attack, including Bangkok and Phuket. We continue to receive reports that terrorists may be planning attacks against a range of targets, including locations frequented by tourists and foreigners. Thai authorities have on a number of occasions warned of the possibility of bombings in Thailand to coincide with symbolic dates or holidays.
On 17 August 2015, a bomb attack at the Erawan shrine at Chidlom in central Bangkok killed about 20 people and injured more than 120. Thai authorities continue to investigate the incident.
On 18 August 2015, an explosive device detonated in the water below Taksin Bridge (Saphan Taksin), close to the main tourist ferry terminal in Bangkok (Sathorn Pier). It was thrown from the bridge above. No injuries were reported. The location of this incident is about five kilometres from the Erawan shrine, the site of the attack on 17 August.
Travellers may notice an increased security presence in the capital and other major centres in coming days. There may also be enhanced security screening measures in place at major airports. Australians should remain vigilant in public places, monitor the media for latest information and follow the instructions of local authorities.
There have been a number of other improvised explosive device (IED) incidents in Bangkok and major cities in recent years.
On 10 April 2015, a car bomb exploded in the car park of the Central Festival Mall, near Chaweng Beach on Koh Samui, injuring seven people. On 28 October 2014, an unexploded grenade was found on a beach in Phuket. On 22 December 2013, a vehicle containing explosives was discovered in Phuket Town. On 26 May 2013, an IED detonated in Ramkhamhaeng Soi 43/1 in eastern Bangkok, injuring seven people. A small blast occurred in a rubbish bin in Phuket Town on 1 August 2013. These incidents are still under investigation.
In mid-April 2014, police arrested two foreign nationals following allegations the pair were involved in planning an attack in Bangkok.
In planning your activities, consider the kinds of places known to be terrorist targets and the level of security provided. These include places frequented by foreigners such as embassies, shopping malls, markets, banks, clubs, hotels, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, schools, places of worship, outdoor recreation events, beach resorts and tourist areas. Public buildings, public transport, airports and sea ports are also potential targets for attack.
Southern provinces - Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla: We strongly advise you not to travel at this time to the southern provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla, or overland to and from the Malaysian border through these provinces due to high levels of ongoing violence in these regions. This includes travel by train or road between Thailand and Malaysia.
In recent years almost daily attacks have taken place in these areas, many of which have caused deaths and serious injuries. Bombings and shootings are commonplace in these areas. Arson and beheadings have occurred. The Thai Government has warned tourists not to travel to these areas.
Australians in Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla provinces may be caught up in violence or terrorist attacks directed at others. If you are in these provinces, you should consider leaving. If you decide to stay in the southern provinces, you should ensure you have the appropriate personal security measures in place.
Since January 2004, there has been heightened tension in these four southern provinces, where violent incidents continue to take place. Since 2004, over 6,000 people have been killed and many more injured, including foreigners. An Australian was one of seven people injured in a bomb blast in Yala province in May 2007.
Bombings can occur in close succession and proximity in order to target those responding to the initial explosions. Over the past few years, there have been numerous instances of multiple coordinated explosions occurring across a range of locations in southern Thailand.
Recent examples of attacks include:
- On 25 July 2015, a monk and a police officer were killed and six others injured in a bombing in Pattani province.
- On 14 July 2015, one ranger was killed and six others injured by roadside bomb in Rangae district, Narathiwat.
- On 10 July 2015, three people were killed and four injured when a motorcycle bomb exploded outside a karaoke bar in Sadao district, Songkhla province. Eight others were injured by a car bomb at another karaoke bar in Sugnai Kolok district in Narathiwat province.
- On 14 and 15 May 2015, 18 people were injured in a series of bombings in 28 locations across Yala province.
Attacks have occurred in locations frequented by the public. Targets have included government officials, civilians, religious and community leaders, members of the security forces, teachers, tourist hotels, bars, banks, ATMs, cinemas, entertainment venues, shops, convenience stores, markets, supermarkets, schools, places of worship, petrol stations and transport infrastructure including Hat Yai international airport and trains. Further such incidents could occur at any time.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin.
We continue to receive reports of the sexual assault, food and drink spiking, assault and robbery of foreigners, including around popular backpacker and tourist destinations such as Khao San Road in Bangkok, the night-time entertainment zones in Bangkok, Pattaya and Phuket, and during Full Moon and other parties on Koh Phangan. See our Sexual Assault Overseas page for further information on how to avoid becoming a victim of sexual assault and the assistance available to victims. Due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, victims of violent crime, especially rape, are strongly encouraged to seek immediate medical assistance.
Beach parties: The Full Moon and other parties at Koh Phangan and in other locations regularly result in reports of sexual assaults, deaths, arrests, robbery, injuries and lost travel documents. In September 2014, two foreign travellers were murdered on a beach in Koh Tao. Travellers should avoid local and homemade cocktails which may be made with narcotic or poisonous substances. In addition to the health risks of ingesting unknown substances, these drinks can render consumers vulnerable to criminals. Travellers contemplating attendance should carefully consider personal safety issues and take appropriate precautions. See our Partying Overseas page for advice on the risks you may face when attending Full Moon and similar parties and tips on how to avoid becoming a victim.
Schoolies: Australians planning to celebrate “Schoolies” in Thailand should be aware that in the past Australians have had serious accidents and injuries as a result of consumption of alcohol and drugs, and have been arrested for theft and/or possession of narcotics. You should behave in a responsible and culturally sensitive manner. The costs for medical services can be very expensive and penalties for breaking the law in Thailand can be severe. These penalties also apply to minors, who are subject to Thai juvenile judicial processes, including detention in a juvenile or adult prison.
Opportunistic crime: Petty crime, such as theft from hotel rooms, and pickpocketing is common. Money and passports have been stolen from rooms (particularly in cheaper hotels and hostels) and from bags on public transport. Items have been removed from luggage stored below buses and travellers have reported being drugged and robbed during bus and train journeys. Beware of pickpockets in crowded markets and shopping streets. You can reduce the impact of opportunistic crime when visiting these areas by leaving credit and other valuable items that are not required locked in your hotel safe. Remain vigilant in public areas.
Snatch and grab crimes: Tourists have also been robbed after the bags they were carrying were snatched by thieves on motorcycles or were sliced open by razor blades. Beware of motorcycles approaching from behind as you walk on the footpath and hold bags and backpacks in front of you or in ways that make them difficult to be snatched. You should be aware that some foreigners, including an Australian tourist, have been killed in these incidents. You can reduce the opportunity for such opportunistic theft by limiting the carriage of easily grabbed bags in public places.
Jet ski scams: Australian travellers continue to report harassment and threats of violence by jet-ski operators on tourist beaches, particularly in Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui and Koh Phangan. Many travellers have reported that, after returning hired jet-skis, they have been confronted by gangs claiming that the tourist damaged the jet-ski. There have been reported instances of such gangs threatening violence, including at knifepoint, if a large sum of money in compensation for the alleged damage is not paid. Australians hiring jet-skis should check the jet-ski for damage, including underneath, before riding and take photographs of the jet-ski that may be helpful in the resolution of disputes.
Australians should also ask jet ski operators to provide evidence of their insurance policy covering damage to the jet ski before entering into a rental agreement. If you believe that you have fallen victim to a jet ski scam, you should call the Tourist Police on 1155.
Protect your passport: Operators may request your passport as a deposit or guarantee before hiring jet skis or motorbikes. If there is a dispute about damage to a rented jet-ski or motorbike, rental operators may try to keep your passport until they receive compensation. Passports are valuable documents that should be appropriately protected. Australians should not provide passports as deposits or guarantees under any circumstances.
Card skimming and fraud: Credit card and ATM fraud, including the use of 'skimming' machines which can store card data, can occur in Thailand. You should monitor your transaction statements and take care not to expose your PIN to others, particularly when using ATMs.
Gem scams: Many travellers fall victim to scams after accepting offers from people recommending or offering various goods or services, particularly when shopping for jewellery and gems. The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) can provide official advice on purchasing jewellery and gems.
Investment scams: Travellers have also lost large sums of money through bogus investment, property rental and time share schemes, card game scams and other fraudulent activity. There have been complaints from Australians who have lost large sums of money from property purchases and in time share schemes in Phuket. Australians should be particularly careful and thoroughly research any company offering properties for sale or time share arrangements before entering into an agreement.
Money and valuables
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
If you are travelling on a restricted budget, it is important to ensure you have access to enough money to cover unexpected costs. For example, you may have a problem that prevents you taking your scheduled flight. Restrictions, such as tickets being non-refundable or non-transferable, apply to most discounted airfares, or you may need to pay a substantial fee to change your travel dates. If you lose your passport you will be delayed and you will have to pay for a replacement. If you fall ill and need medical treatment, even if you have insurance, it is likely you will need to cover some costs yourself. At the minimum, it is essential to have access to enough money to cover a replacement ticket home and several nights hotel accommodation, plus extra money for unexpected emergencies.
Suvarnabhumi International Airport, also known as the New Bangkok International Airport, is located in Samut Prakan Province, 25 kilometres east of Bangkok. Suvarnabhumi International Airport is the main airport for international and domestic flights for Bangkok. Don Mueang airport, located 24 kilometres north of Bangkok, is used for domestic and international flights. Australians should be aware of the airport they will use and ensure there is sufficient transit time if arriving and departing from different airports. The distance between these two airports is 47 kilometres and the driving time can be up to two hours depending on traffic conditions.
Service counters at Suvarnabhumi and Don Mueang International Airports may provide information on transport to the city and hotels.
You should be alert to arrangements where taxi or tuk tuk (motorised three-wheel vehicles) drivers take passengers to shops where the driver will receive a commission. Passengers may be charged higher prices for goods or sold sub-standard goods or worthless gems. You should be alert to your own safety at all times when using taxis and tuk tuks and never put yourself in danger by physically confronting drivers. Violent or serious incidents involving taxis and tuk tuks should be reported to the local police. Secure your possessions while travelling in tuk tuks or on motorcycles as thefts by riders on passing motorcycles can occur.
In Phuket and some other parts of Thailand, taxis and tuk tuks are not metered and fares may be set according to distance travelled or negotiated between driver and passenger. The Embassy continues to receive reports of tuk tuk drivers in Phuket becoming aggressive and sometimes violent during disagreements over fares or routes. Fares and routes should be agreed upon before engaging the taxi or tuk tuk. If you find yourself in a dispute with a driver, you should call the Tourist Police on 1155 to mediate.
In Phuket, syndicates of taxi and tuk tuk drivers may operate in particular areas. The Embassy has received reports of drivers resisting, sometimes violently, other drivers who try to pick up passengers in their area.
Motorcycle and other road accidents are very common in Thailand, including in resort areas such as Phuket, Pattaya and Koh Samui. Under Thai law, motorcycle riders and passengers are required to wear helmets, but they are often not provided by hire companies or motorcycle taxis. Each year foreign tourists affected by alcohol are injured in motorcycle and other vehicle accidents. In such cases travel insurers are likely to exclude cover. Don’t drink and drive. For further advice on road safety, see our page on road travel.
To drive a car or ride a motorcycle in Thailand, you need a valid driver licence of the correct class. Be aware some vehicle rental companies will try to tell you otherwise. We recommend that you carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) in addition to your Australian driver licence. For further advice on road safety in Thailand and how to obtain an IDP, see our page on road travel.
If you intend to hire cars, motorcycles, jet skis or any other motorised vehicle, talk to your travel insurer to check if these activities are covered by your insurance policy and seek advice on any restrictions that may apply (such as insurance cover being voided if you are not licensed to ride a motorcycle in Australia).
The Thai Department of Tourism provides useful advice on renting jet skis at the Tourism Authority website.
There have been many serious accidents involving jet skis and motorcycles in Thailand. Foreigners are regularly detained and arrested by police following jet ski and motorcycle accidents until compensation, often thousands of dollars, can be negotiated between parties. The Embassy is not able to assist in these negotiations and can only provide a list of lawyers. Many vehicle hire companies do not have insurance and any damage, loss, or costs associated with injuries to third parties will be your responsibility to negotiate or pay. In addition to checking that your travel insurance covers hospital and other costs associated with motorbike, jet-ski or other vehicle accidents, also ensure that the hiring company holds comprehensive insurance, including third-party, for the vehicle you are hiring. We recommend that Australians do not provide passports as deposits or guarantees.
Australians have reported cases where hire companies have demanded large amounts of compensation for pre-existing damage to motorbikes. There have also been reports claiming that hire companies have arranged for motorbikes to be stolen from the hirer, and forcing them to pay thousands of dollars in compensation, including the value of a new motorbike plus lost earnings.
Travellers should be vigilant when opening taxi doors. Accidents involving collisions between motorcycles and open taxi doors are common in Thailand. Taxi passengers are liable to pay compensation to both the taxi driver and the motorcyclist for any damages incurred to the vehicle(s) and/or for physical injury, regardless of who is at fault.
There have been a number of instances of train derailments in recent years, including on the Bangkok-Chiang Mai line. Some have resulted in deaths and injuries.
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators, including adventure activities (e.g. scuba diving, elephant safaris and bungee jumping), are not always met. Sufficient safety equipment may not be provided and recommended maintenance standards and safety precautions may not be observed. If you intend participating in these activities, you should talk to your travel insurer to check if the activity is covered by your insurance policy. Don’t be afraid to ask about or insist on minimal safety requirements with tour operators.
Ferry travel in Thailand can be dangerous, as vessel passenger limits are not always observed or sufficient life jackets provided. Australians have been killed and injured in ferry and boat accidents in coastal areas, including near Samui Island. Several safety incidents have recently been reported on vessels in Phuket. You should ensure that any vessel you intend to board is carrying appropriate safety equipment and that life jackets are provided for all passengers and are worn at all times. Check with your tour operator or vessel management to ensure appropriate safety standards are maintained.
You should avoid travelling in ferries and speedboats after dark. Australians attending full moon parties should try to secure accommodation on the island where the party is being held to avoid the need to travel by boat at night. See the Partying Overseas page for further information on travel issues.
Beach safety: You should take particular care when swimming off coastal areas, especially during monsoon season (November-March in Koh Samui and the south-east of the Thai peninsula and May-October in the rest of Thailand, including Phuket). Severe undercurrents (rips) are common in coastal areas and many foreign tourists have drowned, including in popular resort areas such as Phuket, Pattaya and Koh Samui. Lifeguard services are rarely available. In some locations, red flags are displayed to warn swimmers not to enter the water and these warnings should be taken very seriously. If in any doubt check with local authorities before swimming. You should never swim after dark or after consuming alcohol.
Building safety: It is common for railings on stairs and balconies in Thailand to be lower than the Australian standard height or to be made of materials that are not strong. In some cases railings are non-existent. There have been cases of Australians being injured or dying after falling from stairs or balconies. You should take care when using stairs and balconies and when supervising children in these areas.
Wildlife: Australians are advised to respect wildlife laws and to maintain a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife, including marine animals and birds. You should only use reputable and professional guides or tour operators and closely follow park regulations and wardens' advice.
The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Thailand.
Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.
You are subject to the local laws of Thailand, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
On 19 February 2015, the Thai Parliament passed legislation banning commercial surrogacy. The legislation was published in the Royal Gazette on 1 May and came into effect on 30 July. Australians are advised not to visit Thailand for the purpose of engaging in commercial surrogacy arrangements. Those considering commercial surrogacy overseas should seek independent legal advice. You should also see our Overseas births, adoptions and surrogacies page for further information.
Thai authorities are enforcing documentation requirements upon exit of the country when they suspect a child has been born by surrogacy in Thailand. We strongly recommend that Australians already engaged in commercial surrogacy arrangements in Thailand seek independent legal advice, including on the implications of any new exit requirements. Australians with existing agreements who may be affected by these arrangements should call the Consular Section at the Australian Embassy in Bangkok for the latest information (Tel: +66 2 344 6300 and follow the prompts for Consular Services).
Some prescription medications available in Australian are controlled substances in Thailand, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor. This includes medication to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Restrictions also apply to some over the counter medications available in Australia, including drugs containing codeine. The website of the Thai Food and Drug Administration has information on how to obtain approval import controlled substances and other restrictions applying to foreign nationals travelling with medication. If you intend to bring prescription or non-prescription medication into Thailand you should first contact the closest Thai Embassy or Consulate to confirm it is legal. See the website of the Thai Embassy in Canberra for more information.
Other legal information
Foreigners are required to carry identification at all times.
The Thai authorities may conduct spot-checks for illegal drugs, particularly around the main areas frequented by tourists. Travellers should be aware of reports that foreigners have been targeted for narcotic tests. Under Thai law, the authorities have the right to demand urine samples from individuals suspected of taking illegal drugs. If you are asked to submit a urine sample, you should request that this be done at a police station and ask for permission to contact the Embassy or the Tourist Police (telephone 1155) for English speaking officers. You should adhere to directives issued by authorities.
In Thailand, penalties for drug offences are severe and include the death penalty. The possession of even small quantities of drugs known as "soft drugs" for recreational purposes can result in lengthy jail sentences and deportation. See our Drugs page.
The death penalty can also be imposed for murder, attempted murder, rape, crimes against the state including treason, and certain offences against the monarchy.
Lengthy prison terms up to 15 years can be imposed for insulting the monarchy or defacing images of the monarch and his family. This includes destroying bank notes bearing the King's image.
Almost all forms of gambling (other than at a few major race tracks) are illegal in Thailand. There can be heavy penalties for illegal gambling of any form.
Penalties for shoplifting, including at airports, include heavy fines and detention.
People found to be making false statements to police, including making false statements in relation to insurance claims, may be prosecuted and imprisoned or fined. Reporting any crime that did not actually take place or lying about the circumstances of an incident may result in your arrest and imprisonment.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia. A number of Australians have been arrested in Thailand for these crimes.
Deliberate transgressions of local customs, such as showing the soles of your feet or touching the top of a person's head, are likely to cause grave offence. You should respect local customs and take care not to offend. If in doubt, seek local advice.
Information for dual nationals
Australia/Thai dual nationals may be liable for conscription. Australian/Thai dual nationals who are unsure of their military obligation can consult the nearest embassy of Thailand.
Our Dual nationals page provides further information.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
If you have a mental health condition, you, your family and any travelling companions should also assess the possible consequences of the challenges and stressors that can arise whilst travelling overseas. The experience of different environments, unfamiliar customs, language barriers, social isolation, and general uncertainty are examples of risk factors that may increase stress and anxiety. Increased stress may exacerbate existing mental health conditions and possibly trigger unfamiliar mental health issues. Mental health facilities and treatment approaches may be very different to those in Australia. Australians with mental health concerns should carefully consider the possible consequences of travelling on their wellbeing. Travellers should be aware of the local regulations and procedures for importing prescription medication. See under Laws for details.
On 18 June 2015, Thai authorities confirmed a case of Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in a visitor who travelled to Thailand from the Middle East. The visitor was quarantined and has since been declared free of the MERS virus. Screening measures are in place at major airports. Australians arriving from affected countries (Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran Jordan and South Korea) should be aware that they may be subjected to further testing and quarantine if screening tests are positive. MERS-CoV cases have most frequently occurred in people with underlying conditions that may have made them more susceptible to infection (including diabetes, kidney disease, hypertension, asthma and lung diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease). See our Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) travel bulletin.
The standard of medical facilities throughout Thailand varies. While private hospitals with international standard facilities can be found in major cities, services can be limited elsewhere. Private hospitals generally require confirmation of insurance or a guarantee of payment before admitting a patient. Costs can be very expensive. Generally, serious illnesses and accidents can be treated at private or public hospitals in Bangkok and other large cities. However, medical evacuation to a destination with the required facilities may be necessary in some cases at considerable cost.
Decompression chambers are located near popular dive sites in Koh Tao, Koh Samui, Phuket, Pattaya and Bangkok.
Stings from jellyfish and other marine animals can be fatal. You should seek advice from local authorities, your tour operator or hotel regarding seasonal bathing conditions, recommended precautions and other potential dangers.
Malaria exists throughout the year in rural areas of the country, particularly near the borders with Cambodia, Laos, and Burma. Dengue fever occurs in Thailand, and is particularly common during the rainy season, peaking in July and August. Thai authorities have reported an increase in dengue fever cases and a number of deaths. Australian health authorities report a number of cases of dengue each year amongst travellers returning from Thailand. There is no vaccination or specific treatment available for dengue fever. Anyone suffering from a fever should seek medical advice. Other insect-borne diseases (including chikungunya fever, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis) also occur in many areas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before travelling and to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria where necessary. We also encourage you to take measures to avoid insect bites including using an insect repellent at all times and wearing long, loose fitting, light coloured clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.
The rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Thailand is high. You should exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Rabies: Rabies is a potentially fatal viral disease that can be found in dogs, monkeys, bats and other mammals in Thailand. In addition to the risk posed by dogs, you should also be aware that Australians are routinely treated with rabies immunoglobulin on their return to Australia following bites or scratches from monkeys in Thailand. In order to avoid potential exposure you should not feed or pat monkeys, even in popular markets, tourist destinations and sanctuaries where you may be encouraged to interact with monkeys. See our health page for further information on what to do if bitten by an animal that may carry rabies.
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases (including tuberculosis, cholera, hepatitis, leptospirosis and typhoid) are prevalent with outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes and raw and undercooked food, and avoid unpasteurised dairy products. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
You should also be aware that illness caused by naturally occurring seafood toxins such as ciguatera as well as scombroid (histamine fish poisoning ) and toxins in shellfish can be a hazard (for more information see Queensland Health’s factsheet). Seek urgent medical attention if you suspect poisoning.
Avoid temporary 'black henna' tattoos as they often contain a dye which can cause serious skin reactions. For further information, see the Australasian College of Dermatologists website.
Smoke haze: There is smoke haze across some parts of north and north-east Thailand usually during March to April. The high levels of air pollution may aggravate bronchial, sinus or asthma conditions. Keep up-to-date with advice of local authorities and seek medical advice on appropriate precautions. Regular air quality reports are available from the Meteorological Service Singapore.
Medical tourism, including for cosmetic and sex-change operations, is common in Thailand. Australians should ensure that they are not lured to discount or uncertified medical establishments where standards can be lacking, resulting in serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Hospitals and clinics have been known to refuse compensation to patients not satisfied with the results of cosmetic surgery or when patients are harmed or die during procedures.
Some prescription medications available in Australia are controlled substances in Thailand, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor. This includes medication to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Restrictions also apply to some over the counter medications available in Australia, including drugs containing codeine. If you intend to bring prescription or non-prescription medication into Thailand you should first contact the closest Thai Embassy or Consulate to confirm it is legal. See the website of the Thai Embassy in Canberra for more information. The website of the Thai Food and Drug Administration has information on how to obtain approval to import controlled substances and other restrictions applying to foreign nationals travelling with medication.
Where to Get Help
Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best option may be to contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurance provider in the first instance.
If the matter relates to criminal issues, contact the local police. If the matter relates to complaints about tourism services or products, contact the service provider directly.
The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and can’t do to assist Australians overseas. For consular assistance, see contact details below:
Australian Embassy, Bangkok
37 South Sathorn Road,
Telephone: (66 2) 344 6300
Facsimile: (66 2) 344 6310
Australian Consulate, Phuket
77/77 Unit 6D, CCM Complex, Moo 5
Charlermprakiat Rama 9 Road
Telephone: (66 76) 510 111
Australian Consulate, Chiang Mai
Jinda Charoen Konsong
236 Chiangmai-Doi Saket Road
Chiang Mai, THAILAND
Telephone: (66 8) 1837 7750
Australian Consulate, Koh Samui
Surat Thani, THAILAND
Contact through the Australian Embassy, Bangkok
If you are travelling to Thailand, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the Embassy, you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Severe storms and widespread seasonal flooding, including flash floods, can occur without warning in Thailand, particularly during the local wet season from May to October, but can occur at other times. Disruptions to transport (air, sea, road and rail), electricity and communications are likely during severe weather events and you should check with your tour operator for the latest information on disruptions. You should follow the instructions of local disaster management authorities and monitor media and weather reports. You should not enter areas affected by flooding or landslides without seeking advice from local authorities.
The Mekong River Commission website contains information on flood levels for the Mekong River. Travellers should follow instructions from local authorities, monitor media and weather reports, and check with tour operators before travelling to affected areas.
Earthquakes can occur in Thailand. In the event of an earthquake you should follow the advice of local authorities and monitor the media for the latest information. For the latest earthquake information, visit the Thai Meteorological Department website.
An earthquake with the magnitude of 6.3 affected seven districts of Chiang Rai province on 5 May 2014. Damage was caused to some buildings.
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Indian and Pacific Oceans there is a more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic plate boundaries and ocean trenches. See the Tsunami Awareness brochure.
Information on natural disasters can be obtained from the Humanitarian Early Warning Service. If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
For additional general and economic information to assist travelling in this country, see the following links: