- We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Sri Lanka at this time because of the high risk of politically motivated violence.
- On 25 August 2011, the Sri Lanka government announced it would not extend the state of emergency, which had been in place almost constantly since 1971. The state of emergency lapsed on 31 August 2011, with the removal of emergency regulations. However, new regulations have been introduced under the Prevention of Terrorism Act which replaced several provisions of the emergency regulations.
- Security forces maintain a visible presence throughout the country. Military and police checkpoints are present along some roads and road closures can occur without warning.
- You should avoid all demonstrations and large public gatherings as they may turn violent or be a target for politically-motivated attacks. Police have used tear gas in response to protests.
- There have been no terrorist attacks since the military defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) by government forces in May 2009. Nevertheless isolated attacks are possible. You should avoid military and government installations, which have been the most common targets for previous attacks. Attacks also occurred in the past against infrastructure, in markets and on public transport.
- In the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, which includes Mannar, Vavuniya, Mullaitivu, Kilinochichi and Jaffna Districts, post-conflict security forces activity is ongoing, especially demining. Marked and unmarked minefields and unexploded ordnance are widespread in some areas.
- In both the Northern and Eastern Provinces you should stay on main roads and pay close attention to signs warning of danger from landmines.
- Foreign passport holders, including diplomats and international and local non-government organisation personnel, no longer require approval from the Ministry of Defence to travel to the north of Sri Lanka. However, individuals and groups intending to visit military establishments or high security zones or to meet military officials still require specific approval from the Ministry of Defence.
- All regions of Sri Lanka experience outbreaks of the mosquito-borne dengue fever. Almost half of the cases in 2012 were reported in Western Province, where Colombo is located. See Health Issues below for more information.
- Because of the prevailing security situation, we strongly recommend that you register your travel and contact details with us so we can contact you in an emergency.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Sri Lanka, for the most up-to-date information.
The Sri Lankan government introduced a new Electronic Travel Authorisation (ETA) system with effect from 1 January 2012. Foreign nationals who intend to visit Sri Lanka must obtain an ETA prior to arrival. More information on the ETA can be accessed online at www.eta.gov.lk. There is a non-refundable processing fee for some categories of the ETA.
Make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.
Safety and security
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. You can find more information about this threat in our General Advice to Australian Travellers.
Conventional conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in the north of the country ended in May 2009 with the military defeat of the LTTE. No terrorist attacks have occurred since then, however, the possibility of isolated attacks remains. You should avoid military and government installations, which have been the most common targets for previous attacks. Attacks also occurred in the past against infrastructure, in markets and on public transport.
Civil unrest/political tension
We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Sri Lanka at this time because of the risk of politically motivated violence. Australians could inadvertently become victims of violence directed at others. You should pay close attention to your personal security and monitor the media and other local information sources for information about possible new safety or security risks.
On 25 August 2011, the Sri Lanka government announced it would not extend the state of emergency, which had been in place almost constantly since 1971. The state of emergency lapsed on 31 August 2011, with the removal of emergency regulations. However, new regulations have been introduced under the Prevention of Terrorism Act which replaced several provisions of the emergency regulations.
Military and police checkpoints are established along some main roads and armed security forces have a visible presence throughout the country. Road blocks may be established without warning. The security forces have wide-ranging powers, including the authority to impose curfews, detain without charge for extended periods of time and to search individuals, vehicles, residences and commercial premises. You should comply with instructions issued by security personnel and carry proof of identification, such as your passport, at all times.
You should avoid all demonstrations and large public gatherings as they may turn violent or be a target for politically-motivated attacks. Police have used tear gas in response to protests.
Non-Sri Lankan citizens of Sri Lankan heritage have been detained on occasion by Sri Lankan Police or security forces. Australians are encouraged to keep their passports with them at all times and to ask to contact the Australian High Commission if detained.
There have been incidents of violence against aid workers and political activists, including in Jaffna, Vavuniya and the Eastern Province. Journalists have been victims of violent assault and intimidation, including in Colombo.
Northern Province: There continues to be a presence of military and security forces in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, including Mannar, Vavuniya, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu and Jaffna Districts. Marked and unmarked minefields and unexploded ordnance remain in some areas. You should stay on main roads, pay close attention to signs warning of the dangers from landmines and seek the advice of local authorities concerning the location of unsafe areas.
Eastern Province: While most of the Eastern Province has been cleared of landmines and unexploded ordnance, some isolated areas are yet to be cleared. If travelling in the Eastern Province you should stay on main roads and pay close attention to signs warning of danger from landmines. Communal and inter-ethnic tensions have been high in the east in the past and isolated incidents of violence can occur with little warning.
Incidents of violent crime occur in Sri Lanka, including sexual assault and robbery. Policing in remote areas is often hampered by a lack of resources and poor infrastructure.
Petty crime such as pick-pocketing and bag snatching occurs, particularly on public transport. Thefts in hotels and guesthouses have been reported. Travellers should take precautions to safeguard valuables and personal effects.
There have been incidents of kidnapping for ransom in Sri Lanka, including in Colombo.
There have been frequent incidents of credit card fraud. Travellers should seek advice from their credit card provider on how to best protect themselves against credit card fraud.
Travellers are advised to limit travel in High Security Zones and near military and government installations. You should also maintain a high degree of awareness at roadblocks and checkpoints.
Transport conditions throughout Sri Lanka are hazardous. There is a high number of road deaths and injuries, particularly on inter-city buses and three-wheeler taxis. The standard of driving and vehicle maintenance is poor. For more information, see our bulletin on Overseas Road Safety. There have also been a number of fatal accidents on Sri Lankan railways in recent years.
Foreign passport holders, including diplomats and international and local non-government organisation personnel, no longer require approval from the Ministry of Defence to travel to the north of Sri Lanka. However, individuals and groups intending to visit military establishments or high security zones or to meet military officials still require specific approval from the Ministry of Defence.
For advice on the location of areas where approval to travel is still required, you can contact the Sri Lankan Ministry of Defence on telephone number (+94 11) 243 3215.
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators, including adventure and water sport activities, are not always met. Sufficient safety equipment may not be provided and recommended maintenance standards and safety precautions may not be observed. You should use reputable companies when arranging travel and activities.
Swimming conditions at some beaches are unsafe and there are often strong rips. Lifesaving services are rare. Appropriate precautions should be taken.
A number of air services operate between Colombo and the north, including services run by the Sri Lankan Air Force. Safety and maintenance standards may not be certified in accordance with international commercial airline standards.
Please refer to our travel bulletin for information about Aviation Safety and Security.
Money and valuables
Before you go, organise a variety of ways to access your money overseas, such as credit cards, travellers' cheques, cash, debit cards or cash cards. Australian currency and travellers' cheques are not accepted in many countries. Consult with your bank to find out which is the most appropriate currency to carry and whether your ATM card will work overseas.
Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets, visas and travellers' cheques. Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.
While travelling, don't carry too much cash and remember that expensive watches, jewellery and cameras may be tempting targets for thieves.
As a sensible precaution against luggage tampering, including theft, lock your luggage. Information on luggage safety is available from The Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
Australians are required to pay an additional fee to have their passport replaced. In some cases, the Government may also restrict the length of validity or type of replacement passports.
When you are in Sri Lanka, be aware that local laws and penalties, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards, do apply to you. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you but we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
Information on what Australian consular officers can and cannot do to help Australians in trouble overseas is available from the Consular Services Charter.
Penalties for drug trafficking are severe and include the death penalty. The death penalty may also be applied for murder and rape.
Homosexual acts are illegal in Sri Lanka.
Photography and video taping in High-Security Zones (HSZs) is prohibited. All military establishments and some government buildings, including official residences, have been declared as HSZs. Some HSZs may not be signposted.
Sri Lanka has strict laws concerning the export of certain items including cultural antiquities. Penalties can include fines as well as detention. Travellers should check the Sri Lankan Department of Archaeology website and the Sri Lankan Customs website for more information.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money, laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australian overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties for up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
There are conservative standards of dress and behaviour in Sri Lanka and you should take care not to offend.
You should seek local advice regarding customs and photography when visiting places of worship.
Information for dual nationals
Australian citizens of Sri Lankan origin are entitled to apply to have their dual nationality status recognised by the Government of Sri Lanka.
Our Dual Nationals brochure provides further information for dual nationals.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
Your doctor or travel clinic is the best source of information about preventive measures, immunisations (including booster doses of childhood vaccinations) and disease outbreaks overseas. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our Travelling Well brochure also provides useful tips for travelling with medicines and staying healthy while overseas.
The standard of medical and ancillary treatment in Colombo is below that of Australia. Medical facilities outside of Colombo are limited, especially in relation to emergency services. Private hospitals will require payment of a deposit or confirmation of insurance cover prior to admission. In the event of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation to a destination with appropriate facilities is recommended. Medical evacuation costs could be considerable.
A decompression chamber is located at the Sri Lanka Navy Base in Trincomalee.
All regions of Sri Lanka experience outbreaks of the mosquito-borne dengue fever. Almost half of the cases in 2012 were reported in Western Province, where Colombo is located. Over 38,000 dengue cases have been reported in 2012 throughout the country. There is no vaccination or specific treatment available for dengue. For further information on dengue fever, see the World Health Organization’s factsheet. Malaria occurs in all areas of Sri Lanka except for the districts of Colombo, Galle, Kandy, Gampaha, Kegalle, Kalutara and Nuwara Eliya. Outbreaks of other mosquito-borne diseases (including chikungunya fever, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis) also occur frequently. We encourage you to: consider having vaccinations before travelling; take prophylaxis against malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases where necessary; ensure your accommodation is mosquito proof; and take measures to avoid insect bites, including using an insect repellent at all times and wearing long, loose fitting, light coloured clothing.
The mosquito-borne disease Japanese encephalitis is found throughout many regions of North, South and South-East Asia and Papua New Guinea. A Japanese encephalitis vaccine is registered for use and is currently available in Australia. For further details please consult your travel health doctor.
Food-borne, water-borne and other infectious diseases (including typhoid, hepatitis, leptospirosis and rabies) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before travelling. We recommend you boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes and raw and undercooked food. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has confirmed cases of avian influenza in birds in a number of countries throughout the world. For a list of these countries, visit the OIE website. For information on our advice to Australians on how to reduce the risk of infection and on Australian Government precautions see our travel bulletin on avian influenza.
Where to get help
In Sri Lanka, you can obtain consular assistance from the:
Australian High Commission
If you are travelling to Sri Lanka, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the High Commission you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
In Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Canberra may be contacted on (02) 6261 3305.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
The monsoon season is December to March in the northeast and May to October in the southwest. Flooding and landslides may occur.
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, there is a more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic plate boundaries and ocean trenches. See the Tsunami Awareness brochure.
Information on natural disasters can be obtained from the Humanitarian Early Warning Service. If a natural disaster occurs or a tsunami warning is issued, you should monitor local media and follow the advice of authorities.
Australians are advised to respect wildlife laws and to maintain a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife, including marine animals and birds. You should only use reputable and professional guides or tour operators and closely follow park regulations and wardens' advice.
If you are planning on placing your children in schools or childcare facilities overseas we encourage you to research the standards of security, care and staff training within those establishments. You should exercise the same precautions you would take before placing children into schools or childcare facilities in Australia.