- We strongly advise you not to travel to South Sudan (except Juba) because of the extremely dangerous security situation, the risk of armed conflict, and high level of violent crime.
- We recommend you reconsider your need to travel to Juba due to the unpredictable security situation.
- If you are in South Sudan (except Juba), you should consider leaving if it is safe to do so. Australians who decide to stay should ensure they have personal security measures in place and contingency plans to depart.
- If, despite our advice not to do so, you do travel to South Sudan, you should be aware that the ability of the Australian Government to provide consular services is extremely limited. Australia does not have resident diplomatic representation in South Sudan.
- Border areas between South Sudan and Sudan remain vulnerable to civil unrest and military activity. There have been direct military confrontations between South Sudan and Sudan since early 2012 in border regions.
- There have also been attacks between rival tribal groups throughout South Sudan, especially in, but not limited to, Jonglei state. This violence does not target Westerners but travellers could get caught up in fighting.
- There is potential for political instability and protests throughout South Sudan. You should remain vigilant and avoid large crowds and protests as violence could occur with little warning.
- Conflict can escalate and curfews can be imposed with little or no warning. Curfews have been in place in some regional capitals. Movement at night time in Juba should be limited to essential travel only. Roadblocks and checkpoints (official and unofficial) are common.
- Landmines have been laid in rural areas in many parts of the country.
- Given the extremely dangerous security situation in South Sudan, we strongly recommend Australians in South Sudan register their presence with the Australian Government, so we can contact you in an emergency. You should also register your presence with the the British Embassy in Juba, which may provide some consular assistance to Australians in emergency situations. See Where to Get Help for further information.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions for South Sudan (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact your nearest Embassy or Consulate for South Sudan for the most up-to-date information. South Sudan does not have an Embassy or Consulate in Australia.
You should ensure you have a valid visa before arriving in South Sudan.
South Sudan is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as endemic for yellow fever. Airlines often require passengers to present a valid Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate before being allowed to board flights in and out of the country. If in doubt, check with your airline.
If you are arriving from a country infected with yellow fever you may be required to present a valid yellow fever certificate to be allowed to enter South Sudan.
If you have visited South Sudan in the last six days prior to your date of return to Australia, you will be asked to present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate on entry into Australia.
Make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.
Safety and security
Terrorist attacks could be indiscriminate, and could occur in areas frequented by foreigners. In planning your activities, consider the kind of places known to be terrorist targets and the level of security provided. Possible targets include commercial and public areas known to be frequented by foreigners such as key transport installations including airports and railways, buildings associated with foreign governments and companies or international organisations, oil installations, hotels, clubs, restaurants, bars, schools, marketplaces, places of worship, outdoor recreation events and tourist areas. As security remains high at official facilities, terrorists may turn towards easier targets, such as residential compounds.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. You can find more information about this threat in our General advice to Australian travellers.
Civil unrest/political tension
We strongly advise you not to travel to South Sudan (except Juba) due to the extremely dangerous security situation, the risk of armed conflict, and very high level of violent crime.
In July 2013 the South Sudanese President dismissed the Vice President and all government ministers. Political tensions may be heightened in the period surrounding the appointment of a new Ministry and Vice President. You should monitor local media for developments affecting your safety and security.
Ask yourself whether, given your own personal circumstances, you're comfortable travelling in South Sudan knowing you could be caught up in armed conflict, widespread lawlessness, violent crime and civil unrest. Ask yourself whether travel could be deferred or an alternative destination chosen. If, having considered these issues, you do decide to travel to South Sudan you should exercise extreme caution. If you are in South Sudan (except Juba) and concerned for your safety, you should consider departing if it is safe to do so.
Violent clashes have occurred over the past year in South Sudan, particularly on the northern border and in the state of Jonglei.
Juba: We advise you to reconsider your need to travel to Juba at this time due to the unpredictable security situation and the high levels of violent crime. If you do decide to travel to Juba, you should exercise extreme caution.
Border areas with Sudan: Border areas between South Sudan and Sudan remain particularly vulnerable to civil unrest, tribal violence, military activity and armed conflict. Since April 2012, there have been outbreaks of conflict in border regions with Sudan between the military forces of South Sudan and Sudan. There is ongoing violence on the border with Sudan’s South Kordofan state. There is a serious risk of attacks in the states of Upper Nile, Unity and Jonglei.
Border areas with Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR): The security situation in South Sudan’s border areas with Ethiopia (including Upper Nile and Jonglei states), Kenya, Uganda, the DRC and the Central African Republic remains volatile and extremely dangerous. Armed militias are present in these areas.
The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), currently based in the DRC and CAR, was active in the western regions of South Sudan, especially in the Western Equatoria, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr El Ghazal states. Many people were killed or abducted, and thousands have been internally displaced as a result of LRA attacks.
Foreigners in South Sudan could be targeted in reaction to national and international events. You should keep a low profile, avoid demonstrations and monitor the media and other local sources of information about the safety and security environment and possible new risks and threats.
The potential exists for political instability and protests throughout South Sudan. Armed conflict, tribal clashes and violence involving rebel and militia groups occur in rural areas. Australians could be affected by violence directed at others.
You should avoid all rallies and demonstrations as they may turn violent.
Contingency planning: Australians who decide to stay in South Sudan (including Juba) should ensure they have appropriate personal security measures in place. You should also prepare a contingency plan to enable departure in the event of a sudden deterioration in the security environment and ensure it is regularly reviewed and is appropriate for your personal circumstances. Protests and demonstrations may also affect your ability to travel by road. As a precautionary measure, you should ensure you have adequate supplies of water, food, fuel, cash and medications and that your documentation remains up to date.
Curfews are in place in a number of regional capitals and can be imposed with little or no warning. All curfews should be strictly observed. Curfews have been in place in some regional capitals throughout 2012.
The risk of violent crime throughout South Sudan, including Juba, is high. Violent crime, including armed robbery, carjackings, and sexual assault, occurs. There has been a recent increase in gun crime.
Banditry occurs in many rural areas.
In Juba and state capitals, petty crime such as pickpocketing and bag snatching is common.
Movement at night time in Juba should be limited to essential travel only. The US Embassy in Juba has imposed a curfew from 1am to 6am on its personnel.
Due to the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, victims of violent crime, especially rape, are strongly encouraged to seek immediate medical assistance outside of South Sudan.
Money and valuables
South Sudan is a cash-based society. Credit and debit cards, travellers' cheques, and cash cards are not accepted in South Sudan. You should be prepared to pay cash (local currency or post-2006 US dollars) for all purchases in South Sudan, including hotel bills. There are no international ATMs available in Juba.
Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets and visas. Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.
While travelling, remember that expensive watches, jewellery and cameras may be tempting targets for thieves.
As a sensible precaution against luggage tampering, including theft, lock your luggage. Information on luggage safety is available from Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
You are required to pay an additional fee to have a lost or stolen passport replaced. In some cases, the Government may also restrict the length of validity or type of replacement passports.
Driving in South Sudan is dangerous due to poor road conditions, poorly maintained vehicles and a lack of sufficient street lighting. Using public transport should be avoided as many vehicles are unsafe due to poor maintenance and driving standards. For further advice, see our road travel page.
Roadblocks and checkpoints (official and unofficial) are common throughout South Sudan.
Australians travelling by road should verify local security conditions beforehand. Travel on major highways in and out of Juba and on rural roads should be avoided, particularly at night, due to the risk of crime and armed groups whose motivation may be political or criminal.
Landmines: Landmines and unexploded ordnance remain a danger throughout South Sudan. Australians are urged to only use main roads and paths labelled as cleared by a competent de-mining authority.
During the wet season (July to November) roads, including highways, may become impassable as road conditions deteriorate.
A number of local airlines operate in South Sudan, however serious doubts surround their safety and reliability. All airlines registered in South Sudan are banned from European airspace.
For further information on aviation safety and security, please refer to our Air travel page.
When you are in South Sudan, be aware that local laws and penalties, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards, apply to you. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you but we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
Information on what Australian consular officers can and cannot do to help Australians in trouble overseas is available from the Consular Services Charter. South Sudan is not a signatory to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations or on Consular Relations. This may limit the provision of consular services in South Sudan.
Some activities not considered criminal in Australia could be illegal in South Sudan and attract severe penalties, including death sentences, long jail terms and corporal punishment.
Australians who engage in activities that involve local legal matters, particularly with regard to family law (divorce, child custody and child support), are strongly advised to seek professional advice and ensure they are aware of their rights and responsibilities.
Australians should be aware that the judiciary and court system in South Sudan is rudimentary. In addition, there are not many lawyers in Juba and even fewer elsewhere in South Sudan. Legal proceedings may therefore be lengthy and ineffective.
Taking photographs of any kind, including with a mobile phone, is illegal in South Sudan without a permit. Government buildings and infrastructure are particularly sensitive. Permits may be obtained from the Ministry of Information.
Homosexual acts are illegal and penalties may include imprisonment. Homosexual activity is frowned upon by some members of the community, and may lead to harassment by the public and/or police. See our LGBTI travellers page.
The death penalty is applicable in South Sudan for some crimes.
Penalties for drug offences are severe in South Sudan, and may include the death penalty.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, child pornography and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
Conservative standards of dress and behaviour are expected in South Sudan, particularly in rural areas. You should take care not to offend and, if in doubt, seek local advice.
Information for dual nationals
While dual nationality is recognised, Australians holding South Sudanese citizenship will be regarded as South Sudanese in the first instance and therefore may find they have limited capacity to notify the Australian government of their situation.
Our Dual nationals page provides further information.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our Health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
Medical facilities are basic in Juba and inadequate elsewhere. Specialised doctors, surgeons and operating facilities are inadequate in Juba and do not exist elsewhere. Doctors and hospitals generally require up-front payment before commencing treatment. In the event of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation to a destination with the appropriate facilities (such as Nairobi or Kampala) would be necessary. Medical evacuation costs could be considerable.
Malaria is a risk throughout the year in all parts of South Sudan. Other insect-borne diseases (including yellow fever, dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis, river blindness and African sleeping sickness) also occur. We encourage you to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria and to take measures to avoid insect bites, including using insect repellent at all times, wearing long, loose-fitting, light coloured clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases (including typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, meningococcal disease, viral hemorrhagic fevers, Rift Valley fever and shigella) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes and raw and undercooked food. Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as bilharzia (schistosomiasis). Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
Where to get help
If, despite our advice not to do so, you do travel to South Sudan, you should be aware that the ability of the Australian Government to provide consular services to Australians in South Sudan is extremely limited. Australia does not have resident diplomatic representation in South Sudan.
You can obtain consular assistance from the Australian High Commission in Nairobi, Kenya which is accredited to South Sudan:
Australian High Commission
Riverside Drive (400 metres off Chiromo Road)
Telephone: (254 20) 427 7100
Facsimile: (254 20) 427 7139
If you are travelling to South Sudan, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we strongly recommend you register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency – whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In addition to registering your travel and contact details with the Australian Government, you should also register your presence with the British Embassy in Juba and keep in regular contact with the Embassy through its warden network. The British Embassy contact details are:
EU Compound, Thom ping, Juba, South Sudan
Tel: +211 959 200 010 or +211 912 323 712
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the embassy or high commission, you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
In Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Canberra may be contacted on (02) 6261 3305.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Flooding occurs frequently in South Sudan, particularly during the rainy season (July to November). During this time, fresh drinking water and food could be in short supply and transport and communication infrastructure also is likely to be affected. The risk of contracting a water-borne disease could persist after the water recedes.
Northern areas of South Sudan often experience extremely high temperatures. During the hottest months of the year, the temperature can exceed 50˚C.
Sandstorms and dust storms can occur.
Information on natural disasters can be obtained from the Humanitarian Early Warning Service. If a natural disaster occurs, you should follow the advice of local authorities and monitor the media for up-to-date information.
For general information and tips on travelling with children see our Travelling with children page.