* We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Madagascar. You should exercise common sense and look out for suspicious behaviour, as you would in Australia. Monitor the media and other sources for changes to local travelling conditions.
- Armed robberies and violence occur regularly in Madagascar, particularly in and around Antananarivo but also in rural and isolated areas. Be particularly cautious if driving outside of main cities.
- There has been continued political instability in Madagascar since the 2009 coup d’état. Despite the political transition back to democracy in early 2014, the situation remains fragile and may have an impact on security, especially in the capital, the larger regional cities, and the Betroka region in the south.
- Since 2012, violent confrontations between bandits (Dahalo) and security forces have increased in the southern region of Anosy. Australians travelling in the region should exercise extreme vigilance.
- We advise Australians not to travel to Batterie Beach, north of Tuléar, due to the risk of violence.
- Cyclone season is from November to April. See the Additional information section.
- Australia does not have an Embassy or Consulate in Madagascar. The Australian High Commission in Mauritius provides consular assistance to Australians in Madagascar.
- See Travel Smart for general advice for all travellers. * Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
- organise comprehensive travel insurance and check what circumstances and activities are not covered by your policy
- register your travel and contact details, so we can contact you in an emergency
- subscribe to this travel advice to receive free email updates each time it's reissued.
- follow us on Facebook and Twitter.
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Madagascar for the most up to date information.
A valid Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate is requested on arrival in Madagascar for all travellers arriving from a yellow fever infected area/country. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides a list of countries where yellow fever is endemic.
Make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia.
Safety and security
Civil unrest/Political tension
The political situation in Madagascar has been unstable since the 2009 unconstitutional change of government. In 2014, a new president was sworn in and new government formed, however political tensions remain and the security situation could deteriorate rapidly without warning.
Demonstrations and protests can occur with little warning. You should avoid all protests and demonstrations throughout Madagascar, especially in central Antananarivo, as they may become violent and attract a heavy response from security forces. The Avenue de l’Indépendance, Ambohijatovo, Lac Anosy, Ankatso and Analakely areas, as well as military barracks, are potential flashpoints and have been subject to outbreaks of violence.
In January 2014, an explosion in Antananarivo killed two people and injured 50 others. Similar incidents have occurred in recent years. Small explosive devices and grenades have been found in the city. You should be alert and maintain a low profile while moving around, in particular if travelling alone. Australians could be caught up in violence directed at others.
Anosy Region: Since September 2012, violent confrontations between bandits (Dahalo) and security forces have increased in the southern region of Anosy. In May 2014, more than 30 Dahalos and police officers were killed and hundreds of houses were destroyed during clashes. Australians travelling in the region should exercise extreme vigilance, follow the instructions of local authorities, and seek local security advice. Driving at night is not recommended. The road between Ihosy and Fort Dauphin (RN13) is particularly dangerous and it is recommended that Australians fly to Fort Dauphin rather than drive.
Armed robberies and violence occur regularly in Madagascar, particularly in and around Antananarivo but also in rural and isolated areas. Be particularly vigilant in areas frequented by tourists, including the steps leading to Rova, the Avenue de l’Indépendance and the Analakely market in Antananarivo.
There have been reports of robberies in national parks in Madagascar. We recommend extreme caution when visiting national parks where armed robberies have been reported, including Andohahela National Park, Montagne d’Ambre and Ankarana in northern Madagascar. Armed robberies have also occurred at beaches. You should check with your tour operator for the latest information on safety in these areas. The Pic Saint-Louis in Fort Dauphin has recently seen an increase in violent crime.
We advise against all travel to Batterie Beach, north of Tuléar, where there have been violent attacks including fatalities.
Armed robberies have been committed along main highways, including along some of the main roads in Toliara province and in the township of Toliara. Carjackings have also been reported. Avoid remote locations at all times and avoid travelling at night outside urban areas. Thieves have targeted cars stuck in traffic for smash and grab robberies. When driving keep your windows up, doors locked and valuables out of sight. Hiring authorised guides may reduce the risk of robbery.
The road between Ihosy and Fort Dauphin (RN13) is particularly dangerous and it is recommended that Australians fly to Fort Dauphin rather than drive.
There are regular armed banditry attacks on vehicles carrying goods and people, including taxis and public transport (specifically “taxi be” and “taxi brousse”).
Home invasions and kidnappings have been reported, and foreign nationals as well as wealthy Malagasy nationals have been targeted in recent years.
In October 2013, two foreigners and one Malagasy, accused of child organ-trafficking, were killed during riots in the town of Hell-Ville on the south side of the island of Nosy Be. Foreigners were also targeted in violent armed robberies in the area later in October 2013. We advise Australians to exercise extreme vigilance if visiting Nosy Be, and monitor local media for regular updates.
Petty crime, including pickpocketing at airports and in crowded tourist areas, occurs. Thieves are known to target foreigners. Avoid walking at night, either alone or in groups, in urban areas.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin.
Money and valuables
Credit cards are accepted at a growing number of outlets in Antananarivo and in the provinces, but their use is still not widespread. Travellers’ cheques are accepted by some stores, hotels and banks in the capital and in major cities. Euros are accepted in hotels and restaurants.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
There is a high risk of crime if travelling by road in Madagascar, including carjacking and armed robbery. See the safety and security section.
All foreigners driving in Madagascar must have an International Driving Permit. Australians staying in Madagascar for a long period can make an application for a local driving licence at the Ministry of Interior on presentation of an International Driving Permit.
Driving can be hazardous, particularly at night, due to poorly maintained roads and vehicles, insufficient street lighting, pedestrians and roaming animals. For further advice, see our road travel page.
The police conduct random vehicle and pedestrian checks throughout the country and you may be required to show identity documentation and vehicle registration and ownership papers.
To the north of Madagascar, the threat of attacks by pirates against all forms of shipping around Somalia's waters and the Gulf of Aden is significant. Sailing vessels are particularly vulnerable. For more information about piracy, see our piracy bulletin. The International Maritime Bureau issues piracy reports on its website.
In November 2011, the European Commission banned a number of aircraft operated by Air Madagascar from flying within the European Union zone. The Commission expressed concerns about the overall safety of Air Madagascar, as well as the safety oversight capability of civil aviation authorities.
Domestic flights in Madagascar may be cancelled with little or no notice to passengers if flights are not full. We recommend you contact your airline to confirm flight details, especially when flying from provincial airports.
For further information see the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Madagascar or refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.
You are subject to the local laws of Madagascar, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
Penalties for drug offences, including 'soft drugs', include prison sentences. See our Drugs page.
Homosexual acts are illegal in Madagascar and punishable by fine or imprisonment. See our LGBTI travellers page.
Photography of military installations and airports is prohibited.
Local authorities have detained people for wearing military style clothing.
Export permits are required if exporting gemstones or vanilla for commercial purposes. For gemstones, travellers should contact the Ministry of Mining for an export permit and for vanilla they should contact the Ministry of Agriculture. It is illegal to export protected plants and animals without approval.
It is recommended you carry photo identification with you at all times. The police can stop pedestrians to check papers, especially late at night.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years’ imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
Information for dual nationals
Our dual nationals page provides information for dual nationals.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
The standard of medical facilities in the capital Antananarivo is limited and outside the capital it is extremely limited. Most visitors seek treatment at private clinics where up-front payment is required. Ambulance services are available in Antananarivo with Assistance Plus at +261 32 07 801 10 or +261 20 22 487 47; Polyclinique d’Ilafy at +261 20 22 425 73; Espace Medical at +261 20 22 625 66 or +261 34 02 00 911; and Centre de Diagnostic Medical d’Urgences (CDU) on +261 20 22 329 56. Be aware that English speakers may not be available. Ambulance response times may be longer than in Australia.
While routine medical operations can be carried out in Antananarivo, medical evacuation (usually to South Africa or Reunion) may be required in the event of a serious illness or accident.
In November 2014, the World Health Organisation reported of an outbreak of the bubonic plague. Contraction of the disease is most prevalent during Madagascar’s wet season from October to February. For more information see the WHO plague factsheet.
There are no decompression chambers in Madagascar.
Malaria is endemic in Madagascar and outbreaks of other mosquito-borne diseases (including dengue fever, chikungunya fever, Rift Valley fever and filariasis) occur in many areas. In November 2014, there were 119 confirmed cases in a plague outbreak, resulting in 40 deaths. Cases of dengue fever have been reported in north-eastern Madagascar, particularly in Antalaha and Sambava regions. We encourage you to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria and to take precautions against being bitten by mosquitoes, including using insect repellent at all times, wearing long, loose-fitting and light coloured clothing, and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.
Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, cholera, hepatitis, bilharzia, tuberculosis, and rabies) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, and avoid ice cubes, raw and undercooked food such as oysters, and unpasteurised dairy products. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
Where to get help
Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best option may be to contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurance provider in the first instance. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour emergency number.
Emergency assistance can be contacted by calling 117. The police in Antananarivo can be contacted on +261 20 22 227 35 and +261 20 22 281 70. An English speaker may not be available. Other emergency contacts for the police in the main cities include:
Mahajanga: +261 20 62 229 32 or +261 34 05 998 66
Tuléar: +261 34 05 998 78
Fort Dauphin: +261 34 05 529 46
Morondava: +261 34 05 529 94
Antsirabé: +261 20 44 480 33 or +261 34 05 998 83
Fianarantsoa: +261 20 75 943 75 or +261 34 05 998 71
Tamatave: +261 20 53 320 17/305 78 or +261 34 05 998 54
The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and can’t do to assist Australians overseas. Australia does not have an Embassy or Consulate in Madagascar. You can obtain consular assistance from the nearest Australian High Commission which is in Mauritius:
Australian High Commission, Port Louis
2nd Floor, Rogers House
5 President John Kennedy Street
Port Louis, Mauritius
Telephone (230) 202 0160
Facsimile (230) 208 8878
If you are travelling to Madagascar, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the above mission, you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
Natural Disasters, Severe Weather and Climate
The rainy and cyclone seasons extend from November to April, when flooding and disruptions to essential services may occur. Roads and bridges may become impassable and ferry services disrupted. When planning coastal ferry trips, you should consider weather conditions carefully. Cyclone information for the Indian Ocean region is available from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies. Information about severe weather is also available at the World Meteorological Organization Severe Weather Information Centre website.
If you are travelling during cyclone season, you should contact your tour operator to check whether tourist services at your planned destination have been affected.
In the event of an approaching cyclone, you should identify your local shelter. We encourage Australians in affected areas to follow the instructions of local authorities and monitor the media for the latest developments. Flights in and out of affected areas could be delayed or suspended. Available flights may fill quickly. The cyclone could also affect access to sea ports in the region. In some areas, adequate shelter from a severe cyclone may not be available to all who may choose to stay. You should familiarise yourself with your hotel or cruise ship evacuation plans. You should carry your travel documents at all times (i.e. passport, photo identification) or secure them in a safe, waterproof location. We also suggest that you contact friends and family in Australia with updates about your welfare and whereabouts. For further information, see our severe weather page.
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, there is a more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic plate boundaries and ocean trenches. See the Tsunami Awareness brochure.
If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
For additional general and economic information to assist travelling in this country, see the following links: