- We advise Australians to exercise a high degree of caution in Israel due to the threat of terrorist attack and the threat of rocket fire. Terrorist attacks could occur at anytime and anywhere in Israel.
- In November 2014, a significant number of terrorist attacks took place in Jerusalem, leading to a number of deaths and injuries. An attack on a synagogue on 18 November resulted in the death of four civilians and injuries to several others. Further violence in Jerusalem and surrounding areas is possible.
- Since July 2014, over 4,000 rockets were fired from Gaza into Israel. Rockets have reached many locations in Israel, including Tel Aviv and cities further north. Some rockets have reached Jerusalem and the West Bank including Bethlehem and Hebron. While many rockets have been intercepted by the Iron Dome system, these attacks have the potential to cause serious damage. Australians visiting Israel should be aware of the risks of travel should the conflict between Hamas and Israel resume.
- Australians in Israel should familiarise themselves with emergency procedures and how to respond to air raid sirens, including knowing the location of their nearest emergency shelters. Municipality websites maintain lists of public bomb shelters and other emergency preparedness information.
- We strongly advise Australians to reconsider their need to travel to areas of Israel within 5kms of the border with the Gaza Strip due to the threat of rocket attack.
- Pay close attention to your personal security at all times. You should monitor local media and official announcements, as the security situation may change unexpectedly. In the event of a heightened security alert, security forces may respond by establishing additional roadblocks and by increasing the presence of security forces on the streets. Vehicle inspections may also be conducted and there may be heightened scrutiny of individuals and their belongings.
- Australians are reminded to exercise a high degree of caution when using public transport in Israel. Due to safety and security concerns, Australian Government officials and dependants have been advised not to use public transport, except taxis, in Israel. In planning your activities, consider the kinds of places known to be terrorist targets and the level of security provided.
- We continue to strongly advise Australians to depart the Gaza Strip through official border crossing points if it is safe to do so. Civilians were killed and injured during the military confrontation in July-August 2014.
- Australians should reconsider their need to travel to all parts of the Golan Heights to the east of Route 98 near Syria. This is due to the threat of terrorist attack and the activities of militants on the other side of the border. Artillery and small arms fire from Syria have landed in the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights.
- We advise you to reconsider your need to travel to the West Bank, including Bethlehem, East Jerusalem, Jericho and Ramallah due to the unpredictable security situation. Since the beginning of Israeli military operations in Gaza in July 2014 there have been protests in several parts of the West Bank that have turned violent. The situation remains volatile. There is a threat of further violent protests, particularly in areas near checkpoints. See more information on the West Bank in the Safety and security: Civil unrest/political tension.
- Australians should avoid all protests, demonstrations and political rallies as they may turn violent. You are strongly encouraged to maintain a heightened level of awareness of current events and security developments.
- The security situation in the region bordering Egypt could deteriorate at any time. Recent security incidents have resulted in deaths and injuries, and the area remains dangerous. There is a continuing threat of rocket attack in this area.
- The security situation in the northern region of Israel could deteriorate without notice. The border region with Lebanon and Syria is subject to violent incidents, and there is an ongoing threat of rocket attack, artillery and small arms fire.
- Australians visiting Israel on business should see our Advice to Australian business travellers.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Israel for the most up-to-date information. You can also visit the Israel Government Portal. You may be subject to lengthy questioning and bag searches by security officials on arrival and departure.
Everyone seeking to enter Israel, the Gaza Strip or West Bank is subject to security and police record checks by Israeli authorities and may be refused entry or exit without explanation.
Israeli authorities have advised that travellers who arrive in Israel and who are identified as participating in a “flightilla” (i.e. arriving in Israel by air with the intention of protesting Israeli policies) may be refused entry to Israel and returned to their country of embarkation on the next available flight. Australian citizens who have travelled to Israel as part of a “flightilla” in the past have been held in detention by Israeli authorities and deported.
Israeli authorities may impose travel restrictions on some visitors to Israel and the West Bank. The Israeli authorities have not provided clear information about which categories of travellers can expect to be subject to these restrictions.
Visitors entering Israel via the Allenby Bridge crossing who indicate they are planning to travel to the West Bank may have their passports stamped ‘Palestinian Authority Only’. If a passport receives this stamp, the passport holder is restricted to West Bank destinations and prevented from entering Israel and Jerusalem. Travellers should be alert to which stamp they receive. Airport officials may require visitors to sign a form that prohibits them entering the West Bank. The Australian Embassy may have limited ability to intervene in these situations.
The Erez crossing into the northern Gaza Strip from Israel is controlled by Israeli authorities. You must have permission from the Israeli authorities to use the Erez crossing, which may be closed or access highly restricted for extended periods.
You must receive permission from Egyptian authorities to enter and exit the Gaza Strip using the Rafah border crossing with Egypt. Regulations and restrictions governing the border between Egypt and the Gaza Strip are subject to change. People who enter the Gaza Strip through this border crossing must leave the same way. The crossing may open or close at short notice. Once the crossing is closed it is impossible to enter or leave the Gaza Strip through this crossing. You may be delayed in the Gaza Strip for an extended period (possibly weeks) while waiting for approval to return to Egypt and for the crossing to open. The Australian Government cannot influence the granting of approval or when the crossing will open.
Make sure your passport has at least six months validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.
Safety and security
Civil unrest/political tension
In November 2014, a significant number of terrorist attacks took place in Jerusalem, leading to a number of deaths and injuries. An attack on a synagogue on 18 November resulted in the death of four civilians and injuries to several others. Further violence in Jerusalem and surrounding areas is possible.
Conflict in July-August 2014
Since July 2014, over 4,000 rockets were fired from Gaza into Israel. Rockets reached many locations in Israel, including Tel Aviv and cities further north. Some rockets reached Jerusalem and the West Bank including Bethlehem and Hebron. While many rockets have been intercepted by the Iron Dome system, these attacks have the potential to cause serious damage. Australians visiting Israel should consider the risks of travel should the conflict between Hamas and Israel resume.
Australians in Israel should familiarise themselves with emergency procedures and how to respond to air raid sirens, including knowing the location of their nearest emergency shelters. Municipality websites maintain lists of public bomb shelters and other emergency preparedness information.
The Israel Defense Force's Home Front Command website also provides information on preparedness and on how to respond to rocket attacks.
During military operations, the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) may declare an area a closed military zone. Any civilians found in the area in breach of these orders can be arrested, detained in prison and, where considered appropriate, deported.
Military action and civil disorder
There is a high threat of civil unrest in Israel, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and the security situation could deteriorate without warning. If you are caught up in military action or civil disorder, it is safest, in the absence of other advice, to remain indoors, monitor the media and obey the instructions of local authorities.
Planned and spontaneous protests can turn violent. You should avoid any large public demonstrations, political rallies and gatherings (including funerals), pay close attention to your personal security and monitor the media for updates. There are regular demonstrations and attacks on vehicles if being driven on the Sabbath (see under Local customs) in and around ultra-Orthodox neighbourhoods and in East Jerusalem. Israeli security forces monitor large gatherings and may intervene. International events and political developments may prompt demonstrations.
You should be particularly vigilant during Jewish and Muslim religious holidays, such as Rosh Hashana, Ramadan and Pesach.
There is an increased risk of violent confrontation at checkpoints, where options to leave the area can be limited. Australian officials have been advised to avoid traffic congestion at checkpoints.
Gaza Strip and surrounding areas (including waters off Gaza)
We continue to strongly advise Australians to depart the Gaza Strip through official border crossing points if it is safe to do so.
On 17 July 2014 Israel launched a ground offensive into Gaza. Civilians were killed and injured during the military confrontation in Gaza. An ‘open ended’ ceasefire was announced between Israel and Hamas on 26 August 2014. There is a risk that the conflict could resume without warning at any time. We strongly advise you not to travel to the Gaza Strip because of the extremely dangerous and unpredictable security situation and the potential for further Israeli military operations. Some international media representatives have been prevented from departing Gaza.
Australians remaining in the Gaza Strip should be aware of the extremely limited capacity of the Australian Government to deliver consular assistance.
We strongly advise against travelling by sea to the coast of the Gaza Strip in breach of Israeli naval restrictions or participating in any attempt to break the naval blockade. The Israeli Navy routinely patrols territorial waters and a contiguous zone. In May 2010, an attempt to breach the naval blockade along the coast of Gaza was intercepted by Israeli security forces and resulted in the injury, death, arrest and deportation of foreign nationals, including Australians.
Large, sometimes violent, demonstrations and threats to Western interests have occurred in the Gaza Strip. Foreign nationals have been injured. In the past, a significant number of foreign nationals have been kidnapped.
If you are caught up in military action or civil disorder, you should remain in a secure location indoors and monitor the media for information.
We strongly advise Australians to reconsider their need to travel to areas of Israel within 5 kilometres of the border with the Gaza Strip due to the threat of rocket attack. This includes the cities of Sderot, Ashkelon, Ashdod and Be’er Sheva.
We advise you to reconsider your need to travel to the West Bank, including Bethlehem, East Jerusalem, Jericho and Ramallah, due to the unpredictable security situation. You should not enter closed military zones even where these have been in place for an extended period such as in the old city of Hebron.
There are ongoing tensions and violence between Israelis and Palestinians in the West Bank and Jerusalem. Stone-throwing and other violent incidents are common, particularly around settlements and military checkpoints. Violent incidents have taken place and may occur again. Tensions can arise at short notice and violence occurs in areas frequented by tourists, including in and around the Old City of Jerusalem and in neighbourhoods of East Jerusalem.
Since Israeli military operations in Gaza began in July 2014 protests occurred in several parts of the West Bank. There is a threat of further violent protests, particularly in areas near checkpoints. Large, sometimes violent, demonstrations have occurred in the West Bank. Foreign nationals have been injured. You should avoid all demonstrations.
Stone throwing and other violent incidents occur between Israelis and Palestinians, particularly around settlements and checkpoints
Israeli authorities may close crossings to the West Bank on local holidays and in response to security incidents.
Israeli security operations take place in the West Bank and can include military incursions. Acts of terrorism may result in an increase in the level of operations.
Strict security measures have frequently been imposed following terrorist actions, and the movement of Palestinians (including dual nationals who are Australian passport holders) has been severely impeded.
If you are in the West Bank and are caught up in military action or civil disorder, you should remain in a secure location indoors and monitor the media for information. In such situations, we urge you to contact the Australian Embassy in Tel Aviv immediately.
Israel’s border with Lebanon
You should exercise particular caution if travelling near the Lebanese border and familiarise yourself with local security arrangements. There is an ongoing threat of rocket attack and other militant activity along the 1949 Armistice line of separation between Israel and Lebanon (known as the ‘Blue Line’). Since 2012 rockets have been fired into northern Israel from Lebanon. Further such incidents may occur.
In October 2014, there were reports of infiltration attempts and retaliatory gunfire along the Blue Line. On 28 January 2015, there was an exchange of fire in the vicinity of the Shebaa Farms/Har Dov area, which resulted in the death of two Israeli soldiers. There have also been isolated instances of kidnappings of Israeli soldiers. There is a significant military presence in the area. The security situation could deteriorate without notice.
Israel’s border with Egypt
You should exercise particular caution if travelling in the desert areas near the Egyptian border. Terrorists operate on the other side of the border in the Sinai peninsula, where there have been attacks against foreigners.
Gulf of Aqaba and Eilat
As with our overall advice for Israel, we advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in the southern city of Eilat and the surrounding area near the Gulf of Aqaba as the security situation may deteriorate at any time. This includes the border crossing with Egypt near Eilat. Recent security incidents have resulted in deaths and injuries. There is a threat of rocket attack in this area.
Israel’s border with Syria
We advise you to reconsider your need to travel to all parts of the Golan Heights to the east of Route 98 due to the activities of militants in Syria. There was an increase in conflict on the Syrian side of the border in 2014, including cases of kidnapping near the border. Artillery and small arms fire from Syria have landed in the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights. In August 2014, parts of Route 98 were closed due to fighting on the Syrian side of the border.
We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Israel due to the threat of terrorist attack. Israel’s proximity to armed groups in surrounding territories makes it an ongoing target for terrorism. Attacks could occur anywhere at any time. Border areas with Lebanon, Syria and Egypt are a particular concern.
Local and international political developments and events may prompt terrorist attacks. You should regularly check the media for news about the region and monitor the media for information about possible new safety and security risks.
On 22 December 2013, a bomb exploded on a public bus in southern Tel Aviv. There were no injuries. Twenty people were injured in a bus bombing in Tel Aviv in November 2012. Australians are reminded to exercise a high degree of caution when using public transport in Israel. Due to safety and security concerns, Australian Government officials and dependents have been advised not to use public transport, except taxis, in Israel.
In planning your activities, consider the kinds of places known to be terrorist targets and the level of security provided. Possible targets include commercial and public areas such as transport infrastructure (including bus stops, buses and bus stations), security personnel and checkpoints, clubs, restaurants, bars, cafes, internet cafes, fast food outlets, hotels, schools, markets, places of worship, shopping areas and malls, theatres, outdoor recreation events, pedestrian precincts and promenades, and tourist areas, including historical sites.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin for more information on terrorism and our General advice to Australian travellers for tips on staying safe overseas.
Purse snatching, pick-pocketing and petty theft can occur. Violent crime is rare.
Theft from vehicles is a growing problem, particularly in beachside areas. Australians have reported thefts from unattended vehicles near tourist sites.
Money and valuables
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
There are live minefields in the Israeli border areas with Lebanon and in the Golan Heights and in the West Bank. Some may not be clearly marked.
Driving in Israel is erratic. The road fatality rate in Israel is very high. For further advice, see our road travel page.
Checkpoints may be set up or closed at any time, often without warning, throughout Israel, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Travellers may encounter delays or difficulties passing through checkpoints.
You should exercise a high degree of caution when using public transport in Israel. Due to safety and security concerns, Australian Government officials and dependants have been advised not to use public transport, except taxis, in Israel.
Israeli car insurance does not usually cover travel into Palestinian-controlled areas of the West Bank, such as Bethlehem, Jericho or Ramallah. Separate insurance can often be arranged for travel to these areas.
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators, including adventure activities such as diving, may not be of the same level as in Australia. Sufficient safety equipment may not be provided and recommended maintenance standards and safety precautions may not be observed. If appropriate safety equipment is not available, you should use another provider. Always use available safety equipment, such as lifejackets or seatbelts, even if the locals don't.
The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Israel.
Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.
When you are in Israel, West Bank or Gaza Strip, be aware that local laws and penalties, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards, do apply to you. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you but we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research local laws before you travel.
Information on what Australian consular officers can and cannot do to help Australians in trouble overseas is available from the Consular Services Charter.
Travel documents such as passports and visas (or copies) must be carried at all times as proof of identity.
Penalties for drug offences include lengthy jail terms and heavy fines.
Under Palestinian law, the death penalty may be imposed for offences including treason, assisting an enemy and deliberate killing.
Islamic law applies in the Gaza Strip, including a prohibition on the consumption of alcohol and homosexual acts. See our LGBTI travellers page.
It is illegal to photograph police and military personnel and buildings and places considered security-sensitive, such as military installations and some government offices. You should exercise judgement when photographing people in Muslim and Orthodox Jewish areas and ask permission before photographing individuals.
The importation of religious materials for the purpose of preaching is not permitted in Israel. Such items are likely to be confiscated.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
You should familiarise yourself with local and religious customs and take care not to offend.
The Sabbath (from sunset Friday until sunset Saturday) is closely observed in Orthodox Jewish areas in Israel. During this time of rest, driving and using electricity is restricted. In Orthodox neighbourhoods, driving of cars or use of mobile phones and digital cameras on the Sabbath is likely to cause offence. Public access to these neighbourhoods is usually restricted on the Sabbath and you should not attempt to drive into them.
Public displays of affection are frowned on at religious sites in Israel. You should also take care to observe appropriate standards of behaviour if you are visiting Orthodox Jewish neighbourhoods. In the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, public displays of affection may cause offence.
There are conservative standards of dress and behaviour at holy sites in Jerusalem and in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
Unmarried couples (including same sex couples) are not permitted to live together or share hotel accommodation in the Gaza Strip or the West Bank.
The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is expected to begin in mid-June 2015. During Ramadan, Australians travelling to countries with significant Muslim communities should take care to respect religious and cultural sensitivities, rules and customs. In particular, people who are not fasting are advised to avoid eating, drinking and smoking in public and in the presence of people who are fasting. For more information see our Ramadan travel bulletin.
Information for dual nationals
Under Israeli law, you are considered to be Israeli if one or both of your parents are Israeli. Israeli citizens are required to enter and leave Israel on an Israeli passport.
Australian/Israeli dual nationals, both men and women, may be liable for military service. Australian/Israeli dual nationals who are unsure of their military service obligation can consult the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Israel.
Australians of Palestinian background who are, or who once were, holders of a Palestinian ID card are considered by both the Israeli and Palestinian authorities to be Palestinian nationals while in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip or Israel. If you are considered to be Palestinian, you may be required to obtain a Palestinian travel document. Australian/Palestinian dual nationals should also contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Israel for the most up-to-date information on entry and exit requirements.
Our ability to provide consular assistance to Australian/Israeli and Australian/Palestinian dual nationals who are detained or arrested may be limited.
Our Dual nationals page provides further information for dual nationals.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
The standard of medical facilities in Israel is high, while facilities in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are generally below Australian standards. Doctors may require up-front payment before commencing treatment and costs can be expensive. In the event of a serious illness or accident in the West Bank or the Gaza Strip, medical evacuation to a destination with appropriate facilities would be necessary. Costs for a medical evacuation could be considerable.
Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases can occur (including West Nile fever, brucellosis, leptospirosis and leishmaniasis) with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time.
Israel is no longer infected with wild poliovirus, but is still vulnerable to the international spread of the disease.
It is recommended that Australians travelling to Israel are up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations against polio, including a booster dose, as per the Australian Immunisation Handbook, prior to departure.
Please see your doctor to discuss your vaccination requirements. Further information is available from the Australian Department of Health Polio website.
We recommend that you avoid raw and undercooked food and avoid unpasteurised dairy products. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
In rural areas, it is recommended that all drinking water be boiled or that you drink bottled water.
A decompression chamber is located at Joseph Tal Hospital in Eilat.
Where to get help
Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best option may be to contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurance provider in the first instance.
If the matter relates to criminal issues, contact the local police.
If the matter relates to complaints about tourism services or products, contact the service provider directly.
In Israel, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, you can obtain consular assistance from:
The Australian Embassy
Discount Bank Tower
23 Yehuda Halevi Street (corner Herzl Street)
Tel Aviv 65136 ISRAEL
Telephone: (972 3) 693 5000
Facsimile: (972 3) 693 5002
See the Embassy website www.israel.embassy.gov.au for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.
An Australian Representative Office is located in Ramallah. However, the Australian Embassy in Tel Aviv should be the first point of contact for Australians seeking consular assistance.
Australian Representative Office
48 Othman Ben Affan Street
El Bireh Ramallah WEST BANK
Telephone: (972 2) 242 5301
Facsimile: (972 2) 242 8290
See the website www.ramallah.mission.gov.au of the Australian Representative Office for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.
If you are travelling to Israel, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency – whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the Embassy or the Representative Office, you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
In Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Canberra may be contacted on (02) 6261 3305.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Israel and the Palestinian territories are located in an active earthquake zone. Flash floods can occur in the Judean Hills and Negev desert in winter months (November to March).
Sand and dust storms occur during the warmer months.
For further information, see our severe weather page. If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
For additional general and economic information to assist travelling in Israel, see the following links: