- We strongly advise you not to travel to Iraq, with the exception of Iraqi Kurdistan because of the extremely dangerous security situation, very high threat of terrorist attack and very high threat of kidnapping. Australians who decide to travel to Iraq should ensure they have appropriate personal security protection measures in place.
- We advise Australians to reconsider their need to travel to Iraqi Kurdistan – the provinces of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah - due to the high threat of terrorism and risk of kidnapping.
- In 2012 and 2013 insurgents conducted a number of large-scale coordinated attacks against the Government of Iraq and civilians, killing and injuring thousands of people in Baghdad and elsewhere. These attacks have included the indiscriminate targeting of public areas. Terrorists will continue to target prominent Iraqi political figures, government facilities and security installations. Attacks may target, or occur during, other political events, including international meetings and conferences or political rallies. Australians could be caught up in such discriminate attacks.
- Terrorists and anti-government forces continue to conduct attacks against a range of civilian and government targets, including places frequented by foreigners. Rocket and mortar attacks, including in the International Zone in Baghdad, can occur without warning.
- You should avoid all demonstrations and large public gatherings due to the high risk of violence.
- Both foreign and Iraqi nationals continue to be at risk of being kidnapped or murdered.
- Travellers should be aware that there are a range of factors that can affect the safety of aircraft and airlines. Aviation safety and security standards may not be equal to standards in Australia or meet those by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
- Due to the difficult security environment, the Australian Embassy's ability to provide consular and passport services is limited, particularly outside Baghdad.
- Given the unpredictable security situation and very high threat of terrorist activity, we strongly recommend that you register your travel and contact details with us so we can contact you in an emergency.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. All Australians need to obtain a visa before entering Iraq.
The Kurdish Regional Government allows some travellers to enter Iraqi Kurdistan (IK) without an Iraqi visa. In these circumstances, the Kurdish Regional Government issues its own entry “visa”. These IK “visas” are not valid for travel outside the provinces of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. Visitors without the appropriate Iraqi visa may be arrested and detained.
In 2010 the Iraqi Government advised that some foreigners will be required to get a blood test report before entering Iraq. You should contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Iraq for the most up-to-date information on visa requirements.
Make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.
Safety and security
We strongly advise you not to travel to Iraq because of the extremely dangerous security situation and very high threat of terrorist attack. If you decide to stay in Iraq, you should ensure you have appropriate personal security protection measures in place.
Terrorist attacks can occur without warning at anytime, anywhere in Iraq. Iraq is not safe for tourism.
Insurgents continue to conduct large-scale coordinated attacks against the Government of Iraq and civilians, killing and injuring thousands of people in Baghdad and elsewhere in the country. These attacks have included the indiscriminate targeting of public areas without regard for civilian casualties. Australians could be caught up in such indiscriminate attacks.
The security environment in Iraq remains extremely dangerous. Terrorists and anti-government forces continue to conduct attacks directed at destabilising the Iraqi Government. Attacks occur frequently and include the use of improvised explosive devices (roadside bombs, suicide vests and car bombs), small arms fire, rocket and mortar fire, and kidnapping. Terrorists and anti-government forces will continue to target prominent Iraqi political figures, government facilities and security installations and religious events. Attacks may target, or occur during other political events, including international meetings and conferences or political rallies.
There are ongoing attacks against Iraqi Security Forces, particularly check-points, police stations and recruiting centres. Terrorists have also targeted public transport, markets, mosques, churches, schools, universities, foreign embassies and other civilian infrastructure. Previous targets have also included the Justice Ministry, Finance Ministry and the Foreign Ministry.
Terrorists and anti-government forces have attacked places frequented by foreigners, including banks, hotels and restaurants, throughout Iraq. Hotels outside the International Zone in Baghdad have been the target of past attacks, including the Al Sadir, Palestine, Sheraton and Babylon hotels.
Mortar, rocket, improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and small arms fire are common, indiscriminate and occur without warning. You should take precautions to reduce the threat of injury from indirect fire, including limiting unnecessary movement outdoors.
Terrorists have mounted attacks during significant religious events, including Ramadan, Ashura and Arba'een. There have been a number of recent mass casualty attacks on sites and ceremonies associated with religious pilgrimages.
Military aircraft have been subject to attack from small arms fire.
Military operations against hostile elements in Iraq are continuing and you are advised to avoid all areas where military operations are taking place. This includes Iraq's northern border where the Turkish and Iranian military have conducted operations (see Iraqi Kurdistan areas below).
Security arrangements for Australian Embassy staff in Baghdad are at a high level.
Security restrictions, including curfews and access to the International Zone, can be tightened at short notice. You should monitor the media for information about any changes to curfews.
Kidnapping: There remains a very high threat of kidnapping in Iraq. Foreign nationals, including Australians, living and/or working in Iraq continue to be at risk of being kidnapped. Most kidnapping activity is undertaken by criminal elements for ransom. A significant number of foreign nationals have been kidnapped and murdered. For more information about kidnapping, see our Kidnapping Threat travel bulletin.
The Australian Government’s longstanding policy is that it does not make payments or concessions to kidnappers. The Australian Government considers that paying ransoms increases the risk of further kidnappings.
If, despite our very strong advice against travel, you decide to visit Iraq, you should put in place robust measures to ensure your personal security, seek professional security advice and take out kidnapping insurance.
Iraqi Kurdistan: We advise Australians to reconsider their need to travel to Iraqi Kurdistan - the Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. These provinces are more stable than other parts of Iraq. However, there is a continuing threat of terrorist attack and kidnapping in these areas (see separate advice on kidnapping). You should maintain a high degree of security awareness at all times and monitor the media for information regarding your safety.
Due to the threat environment, Australian officials visiting Iraqi Kurdistan continue to employ protective security measures.
We continue to advise Australians not to travel to areas bordering Syria, Turkey and Iran due to the current dangerous security situation. In 2012 Turkish and Iranian military forces conducted strikes and military operations within Iraqi Kurdistan.
Civil unrest/political tension
Since February 2011, demonstrations have occurred on Fridays in Baghdad.
You should avoid all demonstrations and large public gatherings due to the high risk of violence. You should also take care in the period surrounding Friday prayers in all parts of Iraq.
There are continuing high levels of attacks by terrorist and anti-government groups in Iraq. The cities of Baghdad, Mosul, Fallujah, Baqubah, Ramadi, Tikrit, Kirkuk, Samarra, Hilla and the areas between them are particularly hazardous. Attacks can occur without warning at anytime, anywhere in Iraq.
Incidents of civil unrest, looting and the use of firearms and explosives are common throughout Iraq.
If a terrorist attack or civil disorder occurs, you are advised to maintain a low profile and, in the absence of other advice, remain indoors.
International and local events and political developments can quickly prompt violence or large demonstrations.
You should closely monitor the media and other local information sources for information about new possible safety and security risks.
Violent crime is prevalent in Iraq. A high proportion of kidnappings are carried out by criminal gangs who demand large ransoms for the release of their hostages.
A number of Australian businesses have been contacted by companies claiming to be Iraqi importers offering to transact business in unusual or suspicious ways. Individuals may have knowledge of the industry and the target company and may appear legitimate. You should seek legal advice if you or your company is asked to participate in such activities.
Australian companies have also been contacted by individuals claiming to represent the Government of Iraq and seeking payments associated with recently won contracts. You should seek advice from the Embassy of the Republic of Iraq in Canberra before making any payments. For further information on scams and how to reduce your risk of falling victim to fraudsters, visit the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission's SCAMwatch website.
Money and valuables
Before you go, organise a variety of ways to access your money overseas, such as credit cards, travellers' cheques, cash, debit cards or cash cards. Iraq is effectively a cash economy. Banking services in Iraq, including credit card facilities and ATMs, are extremely limited and routine transactions can be time consuming.
Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets, visas and travellers' cheques. Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.
While travelling, don't carry too much cash and remember that expensive watches, jewellery and cameras may be tempting targets for thieves.
As a sensible precaution against luggage tampering, including theft, lock your luggage. Information on luggage safety is available from Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
You are required to pay an additional fee to have a lost or stolen passport replaced. In some cases, the Government may also restrict the length of validity or type of replacement passports.
You are advised to consult a reputable security company about appropriate security arrangements, including at home and at work and for all travel. The Australian Embassy in Baghdad can provide a list of security companies. Fully implementing security advice will help to mitigate, but not eliminate, the threat of attack.
If you must travel to Iraq, you are advised to limit travel and transit to essential sites and determine, in advance, the security conditions of areas you are required to visit.
You are advised not to travel by road in Iraq as convoys of vehicles come under attack regularly. There is a risk to vehicles from bombs, landmines and unexploded ordnance.
Essential services in Iraq, including fuel, power and water, are not reliable. While some telecommunication services, including mobile telephone, have been restored, these also remain unreliable.
International borders, including the Iran/Iraq border, may not be clearly marked. Those who stray across risk detention by authorities.
Travellers entering the Gulf area by sea should be aware that many areas are sensitive in relation to security and territory. There are reports of vessel inspections, detentions and arrests.
Travellers should be aware that there are a range of factors that can affect the safety of aircraft and airlines. Aviation safety and security standards may not be equal to standards in Australia or meet those set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
For further information, please refer to our air travel page on aviation safety and security.
When you are in Iraq, be aware that local laws and penalties, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards, do apply to you. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you but we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Due to access limitations and the difficult security environment, the Embassy’s ability to provide consular assistance is limited.
Information on what Australian consular officers can and cannot do to help Australians in trouble overseas is available from the Consular Services Charter.
Australians who might engage in activities that involve local legal matters, including those related to family law (divorce, child custody and child support), are strongly advised to seek professional advice and ensure they are aware of their rights and responsibilities. See also Information for Dual Nationals below.
Penalties for drug offences are severe and include lengthy jail terms.
Drink driving is illegal. Penalties include confiscation of driving licences, fines and jail sentences.
Alcohol should not be consumed in public.
The death penalty can be imposed for murder, treason and terrorism-related offences.
It is illegal to take photographs or film government buildings, security infrastructure (such as checkpoints and military bases) and embassies. Harsh penalties apply, including to journalists in Iraq. Journalists should be aware that official approval is required before filming in public places. A number of foreign journalists have been arrested for filming without approval.
Iraqi police may arrest anyone who eats or drinks in public between sunrise and sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.
Homosexuality is considered taboo in Iraqi society. People suspected of engaging in homosexual acts may be charged with lewd conduct.
Preaching is only permitted in places of worship. It is illegal to attempt to convert a Muslim. Abandoning your religion (Islam) is an offence.
The removal of antiques and artefacts from Iraq is illegal.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
There are strong Islamic standards of dress and behaviour in Iraq. You should take care not to offend. If in doubt, seek local advice.
During Ramadan, Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink or smoke between sunrise and sunset. It is considered impolite to eat, drink or smoke in front of anyone who is fasting during Ramadan.
Public displays of affection between men and women are unacceptable in Iraqi society.
Hotels may refuse accommodation to couples who cannot provide proof of marriage.
Information for dual nationals
Our Travel Information for Dual Nationals brochure provides further information for dual nationals.
Australian/Iraqi dual national children departing Iraq may be required, by Iraqi officials, to provide proof of permission from their Iraqi father to depart Iraq.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
Your doctor or travel clinic is the best source of information about preventive measures, immunisations (including booster doses of childhood vaccinations) and disease outbreaks overseas. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our Travelling Well brochure also provides useful tips for travelling with medicines and staying healthy while overseas.
Health facilities in Iraq's major cities are limited and in remote areas are very basic or unavailable. Medical equipment and medicines have been severely depleted. In the event of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation to a destination with the appropriate facilities would be necessary. Costs would be considerable.
Insect-borne diseases (such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever) are common in Iraq. Malaria is prevalent in the southern province of Basrah and areas below 1500 metres in the northern provinces of Dahuk, Erbil, Ninawa, Sulaymaniyah and Ta'mim. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before travelling, and taking prophylaxis against malaria where necessary, and to take measures against insect bites, including using an insect repellent, wearing long, loose-fitting light-coloured clothing and ensuring that your accommodation is mosquito-proof.
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, tuberculosis and rabies) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink boiled water and avoid raw and undercooked food. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
Avian influenza: The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed human deaths from avian influenza in Iraq. The Department of Health and Ageing advises Australians who reside in Iraq for an extended period to consider, as a precautionary measure, having access to influenza antiviral medicine for treatment. Long-term residents are at a greater risk of exposure to avian influenza over time. You should seek medical advice before taking antiviral medicines. Australians intending to travel to Iraq for shorter periods are at much lower risk of infection but should discuss the risk of avian influenza with their doctor as part of their routine pre-travel health checks.
If the avian influenza virus mutates to a form where efficient human-to-human transmission occurs, it may spread quickly and local authorities could move quickly to impose restrictions on travel. Australian travellers and long-term residents in Iraq should be prepared to take personal responsibility for their own safety and well-being, including deciding when to leave an affected area and ensuring they have appropriate contingency plans in place. Australians in Iraq should monitor the travel advice and bulletin for updated information and advice, and ensure that their travel documents, including passports and visas for any non-Australian family members, are up-to-date in case they need to depart at short notice.
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has confirmed cases of avian influenza in birds in a number of countries throughout the world, including Iraq. For a list of these countries, visit the OIE website.
Where to get help
The Australian Embassy is located within the International Zone, Baghdad. Due to access limitations and the difficult security environment, the Embassy's ability to provide consular services is limited. Logistical and security issues may make it particularly difficult for the Embassy to provide services to consular clients outside of Baghdad.
If you need urgent consular assistance you should contact the 24 hour Consular Emergency Centre in Canberra on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
If you need to speak to a consular officer in Iraq, call +964 1 538 2104 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The working week is Sunday to Thursday, in accordance with local practice.
If you are travelling to Iraq, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Canberra may be contacted on (02) 6261 3305.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Iraq is in an active earthquake zone.
Information on natural disasters can be obtained from the Humanitarian Early Warning Service. If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
Sandstorms and dust storms occur regularly.
Daytime temperatures in Iraq can be extreme. July to September daytime temperatures normally exceeds 40 degrees Celsius and often goes above 50 degrees Celsius.
Australians are advised to respect wildlife laws and to maintain a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife, including marine animals and birds. You should only use reputable and professional guides or tour operators and closely follow park regulations and wardens' advice.
For general information and tips on travelling with children see our Travelling with children brochure.
If you are planning on placing your children in schools or childcare facilities In Iraq we encourage you to research the standards of security, care and staff training within those establishments.